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8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 5 types of taste?
How many tastes can each taste neuron identify?
-salt, sour, sweet, umami, and bitter.
- Each taste neuron is specific to only one type of taste.
Where are these taste receptors located?
How are they activated?
-They are located on the microvilli
-Once activated by the NTS they depolarize which causes ca2+ influx, which than causes nts release and increases firing of the afferent nerve.
Where is smell processed?
How large is the distance between olfactory receptors and the brain?
The olfactory bulb.
-The distance between the two are relatively small.
How many different receptor types are there for olfactory receptor molecules?
How many membrane components does each receptor have?
What kind of messenger system does it activate?
-There are about 1000 different receptor types
-They are all G-protein coupled receptors
-Each receptor has 7 transmembrane componenets
Describe the organization of the olfactory system
1. First oderants bind to receptors
2. than Olfactory receptor cells are activated and send electric signals.
3. The signals are relayed in the glomeruli
4. The signals are transmitted to higher regions of the brain.
What is a main characteristic of Glomeruli?
what is a main characteristic of olfactory receptor cells?
Each glomerulus will only take input from one type of olfactory receptor.

- They are in a constant state of self-renewal. They are constantly being replaced by new cells that are able to grow thier axons into the mature CNS.
In what ways are smell and color vision processing different?
-there are many individual smell receptors while the diff neurons for color vision are few in type (red, green, blue)
-The processing of smell takes place very early in the sensory system while the processing for vision takes place deep into the visual system of the CNS.

*form and motion vision work through parallel processing in order to reconstruct the visual input to allow decoding*
why are many smell genes inactive?
what % are inactive in old and new world monkeys?
-many are inactive due to a mutation in the receptor protein.

-In old world monkeys 30% are inactive and in new world monkeys 20% are inactive.