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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 4 Phyla of Fungi?
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum Chytridiomycota?
-flagellated, motile cells
-predominalntly aquatic group
-only group of fungi with motile reproductive cells (zoospores and gametes)
-most are coenocytic, with few septa at maturity
-parasitic and saprophytic
-several spp are plant pathogens causing minor diseases such as brown spot of corn and crown wart of alfalfa
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum Zygomycota?
-form Zygospores in Zygosporangia
-mostly have coenocytic mycelia
-asexual spores are generally formed in sporangia
-zygospores develop within thick walled structures called zygosporangia
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum Ascomycota?
-form ascospores internally in Asci
-protoplasts of male and female gametangia fuse, and the female gametangia produce specialezed hyphae that are kikaryotic
-ascus forms near the tip of a dikaryotic hypha
-ascospores are generally forcibly expelled
-asci are incorporated into comple spore producing bodies called ascomata
-typically, asexual reproduction is by formation of usually multinucleate spores known as conidia
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum Basidiomycota?
-form basidiospores borne externally on basidia
-include mushrooms, puffvalls, rusts, smuts, etc.
-has basidium (produced at the tip of a kikaryotic hypha and is the structure in which karyogamy and meiosis occur)
What is the most likely ancestor of Fungi?
-colonial protists
-Chytridiomycota earliest because flagellated
-the pore of the septum has an inflated doughnut like or barrel shaped margin called a DOLIPORE
-any fungus with a dolipore belongs to the basidiomycota
-on either side of the dolipore may be membranous caps called PARENTHESOMES, because in profile, they resemble a pair of parentheses
Why are Lichens so successful at surviving?
-due to their ability to dry out very rapidly
-no water = no photosynthesis = slow growth
Is the relationship b/w MYCOBIONT and PHOTOBIONT mutualistic or parasitic?
-mycobiont parasitizes the photobiont
-mycobiont controls the division rate of the photobiont
-mycobiont provides the photobiont with a suitable physical environment in which to grow and aborbs needed minerals from the air in the form of dust or from rain


At the lichen level, the relationship is mutualistic
-are intimate and mutually beneficial symbiotic associations between fungi and roots, and they occur in the vast majority of vascular plants, both wild and cultivated
-benefit their host plants by increasing the plants ability to capture water and essential elements (eg: phophorous, zinc, manganese, copper, etc.)
-in return, the fungus gets host plant carbohydrates and vitamins essential for it's growth
-Increase effective surface area for water/mineral absorption
-Secrete growth substances to keep root branches juvenile and absorptive
What are the 2 types of MYCORRHIZAE?
-penetrate root cells
-more common
-penetrate the cortical cells of the plant root, where they form highly branched structures called ARBUSCLES and in some cases, terminal swellings called VESICLES
-most, or perhaps all, exchange between plant and fungus takes place at the arbuscles

-surround root cells, do not penetrate
-extomycorrhizal association makes the trees more resistant to the harsh, cold, dry conditions that occur at the limits of tree growth
-in conifers, the hyphae grow between the cells of the root epidermis and cortex, forming a characteristic highly branched network, the HARTIG NET, which eventually surrounds many of the cortical and epidermal cells
-the hartig net functions as the interface between the fungus and the plant

-in addition to the Hartig net, ectomycorrhizae are characterized by a MANTLE or sheath, of hyphae that covers the root surface
-mycelial strands extend from the mantle into the surrounding soil
What are 4 common features of fungi?
Absorptive nutrition
-Cell walls
-Extracellular digestion
-Investment before payoff

Modular organization
-Dispersal by fragmentation – short term
-Totipotent cells

Dispersal by spores
-Developmental adaptation
-Long term survival

Chemical warfare
-Toxins associated with sporulation
-Competition to preserve food source
What's the diff between Holobasidia and Heterobasidia?
-eg: Coprinus

-eg: Puccinia
What are some advantages of Deuteromycetes?
-speed (of reproduction, ~1 day)
-flexibility (can maintain a well-adapted genome)
-can maintain (lethal?) mutations in haploid nuclei, since hyphae are multinucleate
What are the roles of sporulation?
-Genetic recombination

--limited (asexual)
--long term (sexual)

-Analogous structures --sclerotia

-Taxonomically informative
What's the main difference between SPORANGIA and CONIDIA?
Sporangia comes from preexisting cytoplasm

Conidia comes from newly synthesized cytoplasm
In what 3 Kingdoms would you find fungi?
1) Protista
2) Chromista
3) Eumycota
What are some defining characteristics to the PROTISTAN FUNGI?
-nutrition by ingestion
-live as individual cells or colonies
-sexual reproduction by spore formation (only walled stage)
-spore walls have peptidoglycan

**Dictyostelium (cellular slime molds) have cellulose in the spore wall**
-In nature, infective stage is motile flagellated zoospores – primary and secondary

-Zoospores find food a source by chemotaxis

-Attachment is followed by shedding flagella

-Infection requires growth of a penetrating hypha
What are the general roles of mycorrhizae?
Essential for plant colonization of terrestrial environment

Mycorrhizal plant can exploit several times the volume of soil available to a non-mycorrhizal plant
-Environment to plant
-Plant to/from fungus
-Between plants – ecological integration

Pathogen relations
-Physical protection
-Increased plant vigour
-Common especially on herbaceous plants; some trees e.g. sycamore

-Formerly Zygomycota/Glomales
(now Glomeromycota)

-Large sorocarps and spores produced adjacent to roots, but subterranean

-Obligate biotrophs, each interaction temporally limited days to weeks

-Penetrates plant roots /cells
What are the main differences between Ectomycorrhizae and Endomycorrhizae?
-Root cells are surrounded but not invaded

-Zygomycete affinities
-No mantle
-Direct penetration of root cells
What is required for tip growth?
Cell polarity (spatial specialization)
-localized wall deposition and maturation

Cell coordination
-cell growth and cytoplasm movement

Environmental responsiveness
What is Chytridium?
-that thalloid/rhizoid thing
-attacks pine pollen
-super simple structure
Compare the zoospore encystment between Oomycetes, Chytridiomycetes and Plasmodiophoromycetes.
-land flagella first, and penetrate

-land body firts, crawls to location and then penetrates

-lands body first and then invades (ie: no hyphal penetration)

**all zoospores end up losing flagella**
What are Neocallimastigales?
-rumen fungi
-essential for cellulose breakdown
-possible control of rumen pathogens like nematodes

-Obligate anaerobes
-Distinctive multiflagellate zoospores that beat in unison
-Zoosporogenesis by cytoplasmic cleavage
-Flagella and basal bodies are shed during encystment
What are some beneficial roles of Chytridiomycota? Detrimental?
-rumen fungi
-cellulose breakdown in soil
-Insect parasites as potential biocontrol agents
-Coelomyces – mosquitoes

-plant pathogens (ie: potatoe wart)
What is Synchitrium endobioticum?
-Chytrid, particularly common on wet soil
-Resting spores long lived, ≥ 10 years

Spread on:
-warted seed potatoes
-soil in which they were grown (carried on tires, boots)
-manure from animals grazed on contaminated fields
What orders are found in Phylum Zygomycota? 3
-No morphological genders
-Mating is determined by biochemical interactions: mating-type genes
-Zygos and ascos have two mating types: a/a, +/-
-Basidios have many mating types a & b loci, each with multiple alleles: Schizophyllum has ~28000 genders!!

Entomophthorales (insect fungi)
-Conidia attach
-Penetrate by enzymatic digestion
-Growth in insect as yeast or plasmodium or hypha (sp dependent)
-Conidia form at exoskeleton junctions
-Infection can induce positive phototropism
-Attack nervous system?
dying insects climb grass stems and cling there
--Improved spore dispersal

Glomales (mycorrhizae)
What are some characteristics to the order Kickxellales?
-Discovered by
Prof. Kickx

-Saprobes with large asexual fruiting structures

-Probably for dispersal, like the seed coats of burr plants
What are Trichomycetes?
-attached to the lining of the guts of living arthropods
-commensals and pathogens
Where can you find a hymenium layer?
-Gills (Agaricus)
-Pores (Polyporales)
-Teeth (Hydnales)
What are the 3 form classes of Deuteromycetes?
Blastomycetes – yeastlike, limited mycelium (e. g. Candida albicans)

Hyphomycetes – distinct mycelium limited conidioma (e. g. Aspergillus)

Coelomycetes – distinct mycelium with conidioma (e. g. Fusarium)
What is the progression of disease?
1) Superficial – skin, hair, nails

2) Subcutaneous – peripheral tissues

3) Systemic – blood system, organs
In lichens, what are the advantages of the Mycobiont?
-Transfer of carbohydrates from the photobiontglucose from cyanossugar alcohols from greens
-Some cyanobacterial photobionts will fix N2 supplying NH4+
In lichens, what are the advantages of the Photobiont?
-a place to live
In lichens, are the some mutual benefits?
-Some of the algalspecies are found free livingbut never in the lichen locationsIt is the fungal component that: a)allows the lichen to survive the extreme drying out
b) protects the algal cells from extreme light
What are some distinguishing characteristics of Foliose Lichens?
-more or less flattened thallus
-upper and lower surfaces are easily identified
What are some distinguishing characteristics of Fruticose Lichens?
-often grow erect
-no discernible upper or lower sides
-includes highly branched and shrubby forms
What are some defining characteristics to Crustose Lichens?
-The somewhat classic form
-grow as crusts over substrate
-lower side is completely attached
-only removed with the substrate

Lichens can have different numbers of PHOTOBIONTS.

-The predominant photobiont determines the general morphology
What aspects about lichens make them so sensitive to pollution?
-they soak up water like a sponge, therefor, if shit is polluted, they get polluted and die
In class we discussed the ideas of mutualism and controlled parasitism with regards to the lichens. State your personal preference (mutalism vs controlled parasitism) for the description of the photobiont/mycobiont relationship. Give appropriate reasoning to back up your claim, being sure to provide evidence both for your choice and against the other possibility.
-be prepared to answer this
-book takes a mutualistic stance
-argue like the dickens
-best of luck
What are some major advances in Bryophytes, linking them to higher land plants?
Antheridia and Aarchegonia -the male and female gametangia

Sporopollenin-walled spores -allows spores to resist decay and drying out

Multicellular Embryo

Multicellular Sporangia
What are some defining characteristics to HORNWORTS?
-small phylum of about 100 speciessolitary chloroplasts, with pyrenoids
-thallus is relatively undifferentiated epidermis cells contain chloroplasts
-gametophyte is typically rosette shaped
-some species have extensive internal spaces often inhabited by Nostoc (cyanobacteria)
What are some defining characteristics to LIVERWORTS?
-three main types based on gametophyte structure
-about 6000 species
-generally grow in moist shady areas some in water
How do LIVERWORTS asexually reproduce?
-Some liverworts produce Gemma Cups
-Allows fragmentation for assexual reproduction
-Can be dispersed by rain or animals
Bryophytes and vascular plants share a number of characteristics that distinguish them from Charophytes and that adapt them for life on land. What are those characters?
-be prepared to answer something like this...
What are the 3 classes of Mosses?
1)Sphagnidae: peat mosses

2)Andreaeidae: granite mosses

3)Bryidae: true mosses
How do mosses transport nutrients?
-Many moss gametophytes and sporophytes have a central water conducting strand called a HADROM and a food conducting strand called the LEPTOM
-Gametophyte adapted to life in water
-Sporophyte evolved by delay of meiosisvas a response to life on land
-ie. it was inserted (interpolated) into the life cycle

Charophyte -> Bryophyte (Dependant Sporophyte Generation new on land) -> Vascular plants
-Gametophyte and sporophyte generations are homologous (related by decent)to those of the algae
-therefore the sporophyte was present before the transition to land
Where did plants evolve from?
-a Charophyte ancestor
How do Bryophytes differ from eachother?
differ in:
-conducting tissue
In your opinion, which of the bryophytes has the most highly developed sporophyte? Which has the most highly developed gametophyte? Why?
-be prepared to answer this