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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
organ
two or more kinds of tissue grouped tog. & performing specialized functions
three epithelial membrane types
mucous
serous
cutaneous (skin)
where are mucous membranes found?
lining all structures that open to outside of the body

ex: gastrointestinal, respiratory, & reproductive tracts
layer of smooth muscle associated with mucous membranes
muscularis mucosae
serous membranes are found where?
lining body cavities that do NOT open to the exterior

ex: lining thorax, abdomen, covering organs
serous fluid
secreted by serous membranes to lubricate organs
examples of serous membranes (3)
pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
synovial membranes
line freely movable joints

no epithelium; consist of fibrous connective tissue overlying loose connective tissue and fat
cutaneous membrane
skin, hair, nails
five functions of skin
temp regulation
protection
sensation
excretion
make vitamin D
cholecalciferol
-vitamin D3
-made in skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol is exposed to UV light then converted to calcitriol
3 layers of skin
epidermis
dermis
subcutaneous
layers of epidermis
stratum corneum
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum basale
(Come get some bacon!)
stratum spinosum structure
keratin filaments are in desmosome junctions between cells
psoriasis
basal cell proliferation is accelerated, epidermis thickens, cells can't keratinize & are shed within a week
normal period of time for cells from basal layer to reach stratum corneum & be shed
2-4 weeks
dermis structure
dense, irregularly arranged connective tissue w/ bundles of collagenous & elastic fibers
dermal papillae
humps of dermis that project into epidermis
dermis contains?
blood vessels, smooth muscle fibers, nerve fibers, hair follicles, & glands
subcutaneous layer
loose connective tissue & adipose tissue; contains nerve fibers & blood vessels
arrector pili
smooth muscle by hair follicle; causes goosebumps
3 types of glands associated with skin
sebaceous
sweat (sudoriferous)
ceruminous
type of glands associated with hair follicles
holocrine- specifically sebaceous
merocrine glands in the skin are also called?
eccrine sweat glands
apocrine sweat glands found where?
axilla, pubic region, & areolae

(secretions have odor -> deodorant)
apocrine ducts open where?
into hair follicles
eccrine sweat glands are present where?
everywhere (except lips, nails, glans penis & clitoris, labia minora, & eardrums)
where are eccrine sweat glands most numerous?
palms of hands & soles of feet
sweat from eccrine glands is a dilute solution of what?
NaCl
lactic acid
nitogenous compounds (urea, ammonia, amino acids, uric acid)
ceruminous glands
modified sweat glands found in external ear canal; together with sebaceous glands forms ear wax
nail consists of?
plate, bed, & lunula where cells undergo keratinization
which layers of skin obtain oxygen directly from air?
epidermis & some dermis
how is heat lost through skin?
conduction (to air)
convection (to breeze)
radiation (to walls, ceilings)
evaporation (through sweat)
how does body cool down?
blood vessels dilate - heat loss can increase 8 times
how does body warm up?
constricts blood vessels, shivering
what is non-shivering thermogenesis?
oxidative phosphorylation makes heat instead of ATP
what tissue is capable of non-shivering thermogenesis?
brown adipose tissue
superficial wounds
extend as far as the dermis
deep wounds
extend into dermis and subcutaneous layers
phase response after deep wound
inflammatory (blood clot, kill bacteria)
migratory (scab)
proliferative
maturation (scar)
why can large burns be life-threatening?
huge loss of body fluid
hypovolemia
extensive loss of body fluid
circulatory shock
consequence of hypovolemia; can lead to kidney & heart failure
factors affecting seriousness of a burn
depth
surface area
region affected
age
general health
first degree burns
involves surface epidermis; redness but no blistering
second degree burns
involves epidermis & dermis; blistering
third degree burns
destruction of epidermis, dermis, & epidermal derivatives
what is the rule of nines?
a quick way to estimate percentage of the surface area of the skin