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33 Cards in this Set

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anabolic metabolism & example
synthesis of new molecules
ex- synthesis of proteins from amino acids
catabolic metabolism & example
breakdown of molecules
ex- breakdown of glucose to CO2 & H2O
glycogen consists of?
long chain of glucose molecules
dehydration synthesis
fusion of two molecules which creates water molecule
ex- formation of glycogen from glucose molecules
fat synthesis
occurs by dehydration synthesis
protein synthesis
occurs by dehydration synthesis
hydrolysis
breakdown of molecules by inserting H and OH
facilitated by enzymes
products of cellular respiration
CO2, water, heat, & energy
reactants in cellular respiration
glucose & oxygen
cofactors
metal ions or coenzymes
needed for enzymes to function properly
NAD+ & FAD are?
coenzymes
many coenzymes are derived from?
vitamin B complex
extremozymes
enzymes that work under extreme conditions, e.g. those in arctic fish
how does cyanide kill a cell?
by interfering with respiratory enzymes in the mitochondria & halting the ability to make ATP
oxidation
the REMOVAL of H atoms from a molecule
reduction
the ADDITION of H atoms to a molecule
conversion of lactic acid to pyruvic acid is an example of what?
oxidation!!! woo hoo.
what molecule stores electrons generated by the body's oxidation reactions?
NADH
what generates the energy to sustain life processes?
oxidation-reduction reactions
how is energy generated by ox-red. reactions packaged for transfer around a cell?
in ATP
4 steps in burning of glucose
glycolysis
formation of acetyl coA
addition of acetyl two-carbon gragment to oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid in the Krebs Cycle
oxidative phosphorylation/ electron transport chain
glycolysis produces how many molecules of ATP
2 net molecules
formation of acetyl CoA takes place where?
matrix of mitochondria
where does krebs cycle take place?
matrix of mitochondria
beri-beri
disease caused by lack of vitamin B1
where is the electron-transport chaing / oxidative phosphorylation?
inner membrane of mitochondria
what is most dependent on oxidative phosphorylation?
central nervous system
skeletal & cardiac muscle
kidney
liver
lipoproteins
transport cholesterol throughout the body
what does the heart use as a primary source of energy?
fatty acids
beta-oxidation
conversion of fatty acids into two-carbon fragments
deamination
removal of nitrogen from amino acids (needed to process them for energy production)
product of deamination
urea
glucose can be changed into some amino acids, T/F?
True