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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 functions of bones
support/protect
lever muscles
blood cell production
calcium storage
lipid storage
what provides tensile strength in bones?
collagen fibers (like steel rods)
what provides compressional strength in bones?
calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxylapatite
calcium carbonate
hemopoiesis/hematopoiesis
formation of blood cells in red bone marrow
function of yellow bone marrow
stores triglycerides
importance of calcium?
blood clotting
muscle contraction
release of neurotransmitters & hormones
intracellular signaling element
diaphysis
shaft of the bone
examples of long bones
humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals
examples of short bones
bones in wrist & ankle
examples of flat bones
skull, ribs, scapulae
examples of irregular bones
vertebrae
examples of round/sesamoid bones
some bones in wrist
patella (knee-cap)
epiphyses
end of long bones, covered by layer of articular cartilage
articular cartilage
thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering epiphyses (ends of long bones)
periosteum
dense irregular connective tissue covering surface of diaphysis (bone shaft)
wall of diaphysis is made of?
compact bone
functional unit of compact bone
osteon
epiphyses made of?
spongy bone
red bone marrow found where?
spongy bone
medullary cavity
hollow center of long bone shaft
endosteum
cell lining of medullary cavity; contains blood vessels
yellow marrow found where?
in medullary cavity
intramembranous ossification
occurs in fibrous connective tissue
endochondral ossification
occurs in hyaline cartilage
process of ossification
synthesis of collagen fibers by osteoblasts followed by calcium phosphate deposition on fibers
intramembranous bones
skull, mandible, clavicle
osteoblasts
bone forming cells
osteoprogenitor cells
osteoblasts differentiate from these
osteocytes
bone forming cells in lacunae
summarize process of endochondral ossification
-cartilage bone covered in perichondrium
-periosteal collar forms; primary ossification center develops; marrow cavity appears
-blood vessels invade from perichondrium; cartilage model grows at ends
-periosteal collar grows due to osteoblast activity; secondary ossification centers appear at the epiphyses
-hyaline cartilage remains in epiphyseal plate
-osteoclasts enlarge marrow cavity
remodeling
replacement of old bone tissue
osteoclasts
dissolve bone
factors affecting bone growth
nutrition (vitamins & minerals)
hormones
exercise
aging
minerals needed for bones
calcium
phosphorus
boron
manganese
vitamins needed for bones
vitamin D
vitamin A (for bone resorption)
vitamin C (for collagen formation)
rickets & osteomalacia
calcium deficiency leading to weak & deformed bones
growth hormone
released by anterior pituitary gland & promotes growth of cartilage at epiphyseal disk
calcitonin
secreted by thyroid gland
not very important in humans
sex hormones
promotes closure of epiphyseal disks
parathyroid hormone
secreted by parathyroid gland; increases amount of calcium ions in blood; stimulates bone resporption
thyroid hormones
stimulate bone resorption
osteoporosis
excessive loss of bone mass and mineral content
zygomatic
cheek bone
hyoid bone
in the neck held in place by muscles & ligaments
atlas
first vertebra; supports head
axis
second vertebra; allows head to pivot
odontoid process
projection of the axis that allows it to rotate
structure of vertebrae
thick part- body
attachment sites- spinous & transverse processes
sternum structure (3 parts)
upper manubrium
middle elongated body
lower xiphoid process
axial skeleton
skull, hyoid bone, thoracic cage, vertebral column
appendicular skeleton
pectoral girdles, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs
pubic symphysis
slightly movable joint between two pubic bones
union of 3 segments of pelvic girdle is at?
acetabulum
calcaneus
largest of the tarsals- heel bone
coxa
hip bone
cranium bones
one frontal, two temporal, two parietal, one each occipital, sphenoid, & ethmoid
facial bones
maxilla, mandible, zygomatic
middle ear bones
malleus, incus, stapes
bones in vertebral column
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral which form sacrum
4 coccygeal which form coccyx
bones of thoracic cage
14 true ribs
10 false ribs (2 floating)
sternum
pectoral girdle
clavicle
scapula
pelvic girdle bones
ilium (hipbone)
ischium (butt bone)
pubis (anterior)
leg bones
tibia
fibula
patella
femur
hand bones
8 carpal
5 metacarpal
14 phalanges
foot bones
7 tarsal (ankle)
5 metatarsal
14 phalanges
arm bones
humerus
radius
ulna
joint classification (degree of movement)
synarthrosis (immovable)
ampiarthrosis (slightly movable)
diarthrosis (free movement)
joint classification (based on structure)
fibrous (little movement)
cartilaginous (some movement)
synovial (free movement)
fibrous joints
bones in close contact
example of fibrous joints
syndesmosis (tibia & fibula)
suture (skull)
gomphosis (teeth)
cartilaginous joints
bones connected by hyaline or fibrocartilage
subtypes of cartilaginous joints
synchondrosis (ex: rib to sternum)
symphysis (ex: intervertebral disks)
synovial joint
bones capped with articular cartilage to reduce friction
joint capsule
synovial membrane
synovial cavity lubricated with synovial fluid
describe joint capsule in synovial joint
outer layer of dense irr. connective tissue attaches to periosteum
inner layer of loose connective tissue = synovial membrane
seven types of synovial joints
ball-and-socket
condyloid/ellipsoidal
gliding
hinge
pivot
saddle
bicondylar
bicondylar joint (example)
only one = knee joint
condyloid (example)
in wrist
gliding (example)
in wrist
saddle (example)
where thumb connects to wrist
hinge (example)
phalanges
ball & socket (example)
acetabulum (hip socket)
pivot joint (example)
radius & ulna articulation
View Diagrams on Pages 98, 100, & 101
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