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49 Cards in this Set

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Exocrine gland
Gland that secrets its product to an epithelial surface directly or through ducts
Hormone
Chemical signal produced by one set of cells that affects a different set of cells
Pheromone
Chemical signal released by an organism that affects the metabolism or influences the behavior of another individual of the same species
Peptide hormone
Type of hormone that is a protein, a peptide, or derived from an amino acid
Steroid hormone
Type of lipid molecule having a complex of four carbon rings; examples are cholesterol, progesterone, and testosterone
Hypothalamus
Part of the brain located below the thalamus that helps regulate the internal environment of the body and produces releasing factors that control the anterior pituitary
Pituitary gland
Endocrine gland that lies just inferior to the hypothalamus; consists of the anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary
Thyroid gland
Endocrine gland in the neck that produces several important hormones, including thyroxine, triidothyronine, and calcitonin
Parathyroid gland
Gland embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland; it produces parathyroid hormone
Adrenal gland
An endocrine gland that lies atop a kidney; consisting of the inner adrenal medulla and the outer adrenal cortex
Endocrine gland
Ductless organ that secretes hormones into the bloodstream
Glucocorticoids
Type of hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that influences carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism
Mineralocorticoids
Type of hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates water-salt balance, leading to increases in blood volume and blood pressure
Pancreas
Internal organ that produces digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon
Insulin
Hormone secreted by the pancreas that lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose by cells, and the conversion of glucose to glycogen by the liver and skeletal muscles
Glucagon
Hormone secreted by the pancreas that causes the liver to break down glycogen and raises the blood glucose level
Thymus gland
Lymphatic organ, located along the trachea behind the sternum, involved in the maturation of T lymphocytes in the thymus gland. Secretes hormones called thymosins, which aid the maturation of T cells and perhaps stimulate immune cells in general
Pineal gland
Endocrine gland located in the third ventricle of the brain; produces melatonin
The nervous and endocrine work together to regulate the activities of the other systems
What two body systems work together to regulate the activities of the other systems?
Chemical communication among cells. A hormone is a chemical signal produced by one set of cells that affects a different set of cells
What kinds of chemical signals are used in biology? What is a hormone?
Endocrine gland: Hormone sent into the blood. Ductless organ that secretes hormones into the bloodstream
Exocrine gland: Product sent through duct to organ or outside of body. Gland that secrets its product to an epithelial surface directly or through ducts
What is the difference between an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland?
Type of hormone that is a protein, a peptide, or derived from an amino acid. They bind to receptors in the plasma membrane and never enter the cell
What is peptide hormone? In general, how does a peptide hormone work?
Type of lipid molecule having a complex of four carbon rings; examples are cholesterol, progesterone, and testosterone. They pass through the plasma membrane and enter the nucleus of the target cell
What is a steroid hormone? In general, how does a steroid hormone work?
The hypothalamus is the part of the brain that controls the pituitary gland
What part of the brain controls the pituitary gland?
The two hormones produced in the posterior pituitary gland are the antidiuretic, and oxytocin hormones
What two hormones are produced in the posterior pituitary gland?
If too little growth hormone, it affects the height of an individual. Plentiful growth hormone produces very tall basketball players. Too much growth hormone can lead to gigantism, while an insufficient amount results in limited stature and even pituitary dwarfism
What happens to the body if there is too much growth hormone? Too little GH?
If iodine is lacking in the diet, the thyroid gland is unable to produce the thyroid hormones. In response to constant stimulation by the anterior pituitary, the thyroid enlarges, resulting in a simple goiter
Why does a person with an iodine-deficient diet develop a goiter?
If the thyroid fails to develop property, a condition called congenital hypothyroidism (undersecretion) results; mental retardation, short stature, immaturity. In the case of hyperthyroidism (oversecretion), the gland is overactive, and a goiter forms. Eyes protrude due to edema and welling. The patient becomes nervous and irritable and suffers from insomnia
What happens to the body if there is too much thyroid secretion? Too little?
The parathyroid gland makes the PTH hormone, which causes the blood Ca2+ level to increase
What do the parathyroid gland do?
Stress of all types
What response are the adrenal glands concerned with?
Because it has exocrine tissue that produces and secretes digestive juices that go by way of ducts to the small intestines and endocrine tissue that produces and secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon directly into the blood
Why is the pancreas considered to be both an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland?
By secreting insulin when the blood glucose level is high, which usually occurs just after eating and by secreting glucagon between eating, when blood glucose level is low
How do the hormones insulin and glucagon work to keep blood sugar level constant?
Condition characterized by a high blood glucose level and the appearance of glucose in the urine, due to a deficiency of insulin production and failure of cells to take up glucose. The glucose tolerance test can detect a diabetic after a patient is given 100 grams of glucose, the blood glucose level rises greatly and remains elevated in the urine
What is diabetes? How can a glucose tolerance test detect a diabetic?
It secrets thymic hormones that makes it an endocrine gland
What does the thymus gland do that makes it an endocrine gland?
It is involved in the sleep/wake cycle and n sexual development
What do we know about the pineal gland?
Leptin is a hormone made by adipose tissue. If lack of this hormone, people become obese
What hormone does adipose tissue produce? What happens if you lack this hormone?
Barriers: skin, mucous membranes
Nonspecific internal defenses: Phagocytosis, natural killer cells, inflammation, fever
Specific immune response: cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity
What are the three general lines (levels) of defense against pathogens?
Bacteria
One of three domains of life; prokaryotic cells other than archaea with unique genetic, biochemical, and physiological characteristics. They are single-celled prokaryotes, and they don't have nucleus.
Viruses
Noncellular, parasitic agent consisting of an outer capside and an inner core of nucleic acid. They are tiny particles. They caused colds, flu, measles, chicken pox, polio, rabies, AIDS, genital warts, and genital herpes
Absorbs excess tissue fluid, fats in the small intestine, produces lymphocytes, defends the body against pathogens
What are the basic functions of the lymphatic system?
Red Bone Marrow: produces all types of blood cells
The Thymus gland: produces thymic hormones; matures T lymphocytes; it is critical to immunity
The spleen: filters the blood; macrophages remove pathogens, old RBC's. The spleen is not essential to healthy life
The lymph nodes: filters lymph; stores lymphocytes; stores macrophages
What are the four major lymphatic organs? What does each one do in the body?
When nonspecific defenses have failed to prevent an infection, specific defenses come into play. Specific defenses overcome an infection by doing away with the particular disease-causing agent that has entered the body. Specific defenses also protect us against cancer. The specific defenses can be likened to special forces that can attack selected targets without harming nearby residents (cells)
How is specific defense different from nonspecific defense?
The clonal selection model states that an antigen selects, then binds to the BCR of only one type B cell and then this B cell produces multiple copies of itself. The resulting group of identical cells is called a clone
How do B cells (lymphocytes) act in antibody-mediated immunity?
It is the cell-Mediated Immunity which is the action of T cells that directly attack diseased cells and cancer cells
What type of immunity is associated with T cells (lymphocytes)?
They are like paratroopers that carry rifles with bayonets. They can go behind the enemy lines and seek out a specific enemy for destruction. After a cytotoxic T cell binds to a virus-infected cell or tumor cell, it releases perforin molecules, which punch holes into the plasma membrane, forming a pore. T cells then deliver granzymes into the pore and these cause the cell to undergo apoptosis and die
How do the different types of T cells (lymphocytes) act in cell-mediated immunity?
Active immunity is often induced when a person is well so that future infection will not take place.
Passive immunity is when an individual is given prepared antibodies or immune cells to combat a disease
What is the difference between active immunity and passive immunity?
Immune response to substances that usually are not recognized as foreign. They are studied in connection with the lymphatic system because they have to do with the immune system
What are allergies? Why are they studied in connection with the lymphatic system?
Because the recipient's immune system recognizes that the transplanted tissue is not "self". Cytotoxic T cells respond by attacking the cells of the transplanted tissue
Why do some people reject the tissues or organs that are transplanted into them?
Autoimmune disease: when you attack your own body cells
Immune deficiency: The immune system cannot protect the body
What are some common disorder of the immune system?