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88 Cards in this Set

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Nondisjunction
failure of homologous or daughter chromosomes to separate during meiosis I and II
Trisomy
One more chromosome than usual (47)
Monosomy
One less chromosome than usual
(46)
Deletion
Change in chromosomes structure in which the end of a chromosome breaks off, or two simultaneous breaks lead to the loss of an internal segment; often causes abnormalities
Duplication
Change in chromosome structure in which a particular segment is present more than once in the same chromosome
Inversion
Change in chromosome structure in which a segment of a chromosome is turned around 180 degrees, this reversed sequence of genes can lead to altered gene activity and abnormalities
Translocation
Movement of a chromosomal segment from one chromosome to another nonhomologous chromosome, leading to abnormalities; down syndrome
Turner syndrome, what set of chromosomes?
XO
Klinefelter syndrome, what set of chromosomes?
XXY
allele
Alternative form of a gene; alleles occur at the same locus on homologous chromosomes
Locus
Particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome. Homologous chromosomes have corresponding gene loci
Gamete
Haploid sex cell; the egg or a sperm, which join in fertilization to form a zygote
Monohybrid cross
Individual is heterozygous for one trait
Dihybrid cross
Individual is heterozygous for two traits
Autosomal
Any chromosome other than the sex chromosome
Preimplantation genetic
Refers to procedures that are performed on embryos prior to implantation, sometimes even on oocytes prior to fertilization
Polygenic
controlled by the alleles of two or more genes, without the influence of the environment.
Multifactorial
controlled by both genes and the environment. Intelligence is multifactorial, with strong influences from both genes (such as those controlling nerve-cell growth and connectivity) and the environment (such as early childhood nutrition and education).
Incomplete dominance
Inheritance pattern in which the offspring has an intermediate phenotype, as when a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant produce pink-flowered offspring
Codominance
Inheritance pattern in which both alleles of a gene are equally expressed
Multiple allele inheritance
Inheritance pattern in which there are more than two alleles for a particular trait; each individual has only two of all possible alleles
Sex-linked (X-linked)
Allele that occurs on the sex chromosomes but may control a trait that has nothing to do with the sex characteristics of an individual
How is a dihybrid cross shown on a punnet square?
Since each dihybrid can form four possible types of gametes, four different phenotypes occur among the offspring in the proportions shown on a punnett square
only individuals with the alleles aa will have the disorder
What would indicate an autosomal recessive disorder?
They are autosomal recessive disorders so two recessive (aa) alleles are required for them to appear
How are Tay-Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis, PKU, and sickle cell disease inherited?
Inheritance of only one dominant allele is necessary for an autosomal dominant genetic disorder to appear
How are Marfan syndrome and Huntington disease inherited?
Define DNA
Nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar deoxyribose; the genetic material of nearly all organisms
Define Nucleotide
Monomer of DNA and RNA consisting of a 5-carbon sugar bonded to a nitrogen-containing base and a phosphate group
Prior to Meosis/Mitosis and during prokaryotic fission in prokaryotic cells
When does DNA replication occur?
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides into a DNA strand
Mutation
Alteration in chromosome structure/number or an alteration in a gene due to a change in DNA composition
It is a nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): Type of RNA found in ribosomes where protein synthesis occurs
Messenger RNA (mRNA): Type of RNA formed from a DNA template that bears coded information for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
Transfer RNA (tRNA): Type of RNA that transfers a particular amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis; at one end, it binds to the amino acid, and at the other end it has an anticodon that binds to an mRNA codon
How is RNA produced and what are the three types?
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides into a DNA strand
Mutation
Alteration in chromosome structure/number or an alteration in a gene due to a change in DNA composition
Protein
Molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides
Gene expression
The process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product
Enzyme
are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions
Transcription
Process whereby a DNA strand serves as a template for the formation of mRNA
Translation
Process whereby ribosomes use the sequence of condons in mRNA to produce a polypeptide with a particular sequence of amino acids
Triplet code
Each sequence of three nucleotide bases in the DNA of genes stands for a particular amino acid
Codon
Three-base sequence in mRNA that cause the insertion of a particular amino acid into a protein or termination of translation
Anticodon
Three-base sequence in a tRNA molecule that pairs with a complimentary codon in mRNA
RNA polymerase
During transcription, an enzyme that joins nucleotides complementary to a DNA template
Intron
is a DNA region within a gene that is not translated into protein
Exon
is a nucleic acid sequence that is represented in the mature form of an RNA molecule after either portions of a precursor RNA (introns) have been removed by cis-splicing or when two or more precursor RNA molecules have been ligated by trans-splicing
During replication, the double-stranded structure of DNA allows each original strand to serve as a template for the formation of a complementary new strand. DNA replication is termed semiconservative because each new double helix has one original strand and one new strand
How does a cell produce two new DNA molecules from one when it divides?
DNA polymerases are best-known for their role in DNA replication, in which the polymerase "reads" an intact DNA strand as a template and uses it to synthesize the new strand. This process copies a piece of DNA.

The newly-polymerized molecule is complementary to the template strand and identical to the template's original partner strand. DNA polymerases use a magnesium ion for catalytic activity
What is the specific function of DNA polymerase?
The rRNA has the triplet code, the tRNA has the anticodon, and the mRNA has the codon
What type of molecule (RNA) has the triplet code? The codon? The anticodon?
Ex vivo: curing the genetic disorder by inserting the "good" normal gene

In vivo: Using the adenovirus (normally infects cells in the lungs) as a vector to carry "good" CF gene
What is the difference: Ex vivo gene therapy vs In vivo gene therapy
ribozyme (an RNA enzyme)
The splicing of mRNA is done by a complex composed of both RNA and protein. What is the enzyme used?
Recombinant DNA
DNA that contains genes from more than one source (different types of organisms)
Transgenic organism
Free-living organism in the environment that has a foreign gene in its cells
Plasmid
Self-replicating ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria
Restriction Enzyme
Bacterial enzyme that stops viral reproduction by cleaving viral DNA; used to cut DNA at specific points during production of recombinant DNA
DNA ligase
Enzyme that links DNA fragments; used during production of rDNA to join foreign DNA to vector DNA
Polymerase chain reaction
Technique that uses the enzyme DNA polymerase to produce millions of copies of a particular piece of DNA
GM
Alteration of DNA for medical or industrial purposes
Xenotransplantation
Use of animal organs, instead of human organs, in human transplant patients
They are 25,000 genes in the human genome. We know this by the Human Genome Project
How many genes are in the human genome? How do we know this?
Gene Therapy which is the insertion of DNA into people to cure generic disorders is the most advance medical treatment available for ADA
What is the latest, most advanced medical treatment available for ADA ("bubble babies")?
Adds genes from one type of organism to another. It works because improves agricultural traits; improved food quality traits
What is recombinant DNA? Why does this technology work?
Restriction enzymes restrict the growth of viruses, but they also act as molecular scissors to cleave any piece of DNA at a specific site. DNA ligase seals foreign DNA into the opening created in the plasmid
How does a restriction enzyme work? What does DNA ligase do?
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology
By the use of DNA polymerase, the enzyme that carries out DNA replication, and a supply of nucleotides for the new DNA strands, this process amplifies DNA for use in forensics and medical tests
To identify a suspected rapist, identify convicted criminals, identify remains of bodies
What are the specifics applications of DNA technology in forensics (the law)?
Yes they are. 50% of the corn, 85% of the soybeans, and 75% of the cotton
Are GM crops currently grown in the United States?
insulin, clotting factor VIII, human growth hormone, t-PA, and hepatitis B vaccine
What kinds of biotechnology products come from transgenic bacteria?
antibody made by corn can deliver radioisotopes to tumor cells, and soybeans may be developed to treat genital herpes
What kinds of biotechnology products come from transgenic plants?
Prions
An infectious particle that is the cause of diseases, such as scrapie in sheep, mad cow disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans; it has a protein component, but not nucleic acid has yet been detected
Lymph

Lymphatic vessels
n immune system fluid that helps collect unwanted materials for removal from the body

Lymphatic vessels: are thin walled, valved structures that carry lymph
Red bone marrow
Blood-cell forming tissue located in the spaces within spongy bone
Thymus gland
Lymphatic organ, located along the trachea behind the sternum, involved in the maturation of T lymphocytes in the thymus gland. Secrets hormones called thymosins, which aid the maturation of T cells and perhaps stimulate immune cells in general
Lymph node
Mass of lymphatic tissue located along the course of a lymphatic vessel
Histamine
Substance, produced by basophils in blood and mast cells in connective tissue, that causes capillaries to dilate
Inflammatory response
Tissue response to injury that is characterized by redness, swelling, pain, and heat
Macrophages
Large phagocytic cell derived from a monocyte that ingests microbes and debris
Compliment system
Series of proteins in plasma that form a nonspecific defense mechanism against a microbe invasion; it complements the antigen-antibody reaction
B Cells
Lymphocyte that matures in the bone marrow and , when stimulated by the presence of a specific antigen, gives rise to antibody-producing plasma cells
T Cells
Lymphocyte that matures in the thymus. Cytotoxic T cells kill antigen-bearing cells outright; helper T cells release cytokines that stimulate other immune system cells
Antibody
Protein produced in response to the presence of an antigen; each antibody combines with a specific antigen
Antigen
Foreign substance, usually a protein or a polysaccharide, that stimulates the system to produce antibodies
Antigen-presenting cell
Cell that displays the antigen to the cells of the immune system so they can defend the body against that particular antigen
Cytotoxic T cells
T cell that attacks and kills antigen-bearing cells
Active immunity
Resistance to disease due to the immune system's response to a microorganism or a vaccine
Passive immunity
Protection against infection acquired by transfer of antibodies to a susceptible individual
Immunization
Use of a vaccine to protect the body against specific disease-causing agents
Allergies
Immune response to substances that usually are not recognized as foreign
Tissue rejection
occurs when a transplanted organ or tissue is not accepted by the body of the transplant recipient
Autoimmunity
is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts as self, which allows an immune response against its own cells and tissues