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43 Cards in this Set

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1)Domain Of Plant
2)Kingdom of Plant
1) Eukarya
2) Plantae
Five Characteristics of Kingdom Plantae
1)cell walls
2)cellulose
3)Chloroplasts with photosyn. pigments Ex. Chlorophyll A, Betacarotenoid
4)Food reserve(starch)
5)Autotrophic
Chara
(Charophycean algae)
-algal ancestors of land plants
-the closest relatives of land plants
Similarities between Charophycean and green plants
1)composition of the cell walls
2)Ultrastructure of sperm is similar(flagellated)
3)Genitic similarities ( DNA&RNA)
Problems on the land (1)
-loss of water thru leaves
(Gamete or Embryo drying out)
Called " Dehydration "
or " Dessication"
-Solved by waxy cuticles on leaf's surface (to prevent dehydartion)
Problems on the land (2)
-Gamete drying out
-Solve by developing
"Gametangia" to keep gamete moist and protected
Gametangia
-structures that contain gametes and keep them moist
-There are two types of Gmaetangia:
1)Antheridia(produce sperms)
*Flagellated sperms
2)Archegonia (produce eggs)
Problems on land(3)
-Embryo drying out
-Solve by
Plant embryos developed from zygote that are retained
within tissues of parent plants to keep embryo from drying out and protect embryos(*Embryo develop within maternal tissue of plants)
Another name for land plants
" Embryophytes"
Sporophyte
-Multicellular Diploid (2n)
then meiosis to become haploid spores
Gametophyte
-Multicellular Haploid (n)
Then mitosis to become gamete(n)
Motility of Gametes
Bryophytes(nonvascular plant)
- all sperms are flagellated
Cycadophyta
-primitive gymnosperms
-*primitive flagellated sperm
Bryophytes
(nonvascular plants)
-Gametophyte is dominant
Vascular plants
-Sporophyte is dominant
NonVascular plants
Known as "Bryophytes"
-gametophyte(n) is dominant
-No xylem or Phloem
-Ex.liverworts(Phylum Hepatophyta,Genus Marchantia)
-Ex.Hornworts (Phylum Anthocerophyta)
-Ex.Mosses(Phylum Bryophyta ,genus Polytrichum)
Other phylums are vascular
vascular plants
Plant that have two types of tube:Xylem and Phloem
-Sporophyte(n) is dominant
-Seedless Vascular plant
->Use spores because it has no seed
Xylem
conduct water and minerals
-down the plants
Phloem
conduct food or sugar
-in Up direction
Gametes
are cell that requires other gametes to fuse and form individuals
Spores
are *unicellular reproductive cell that doesn't have to fuse with other cells to form individuals
Bryophyta
mosses
**Genus Polytrichum
-nonvascular plant
-Gametophyte is dominant
Protonema***
-immature gametophyte(n)
of mosses, look alike algae
Peristome teeth
This structure is in Mosses and genus " Polytrichum "***
Operculum*
-Look like a lid
-locate on top of sporangium or capsule
-pop off to let spores come out
Phylum Hepatophyta
-Liverwort
Genus-> Marchantia***
-remember
Antheridiophore*
Archegoniophore*
Antheridiophore*
*(look like mushroom) has Antheridia that make sperms(flaggellated)
- in life cycle of liverwort(Marchantia*)
Phylum Hepatophyta
Archegoniophore*
*(look like palm tree) has Archegonia that make eggs
- in life cycle of liverwort(Marchantia*)
Phylum Hepatophyta
Gemmae cups
containing Gemmae. It can mitosis to become liverworts
(Asexual reproduction)
it's haploid because it becomes liverworts(n) by mitosis
Elater(2n)
Cork screw shape cells that are responsible for dispersing spores in the liverworts (Marchantia*)
Phylum Hepatophyta*
Hornwort
-Phylum Anthocerophyta
-nonvascular plant
-Gametophyte is dominant
Pteridophyte
-seedless vascular plant
-Sporophyte is dominant
Phylum Lycophyta
(seedless vascular plant)
-" Isoetes flaccida*"
(Florida quillwort)
-Seleginella Rrausianna(spike moss)
-Lycopodium(club moss)
most seedless plants are Homosporous
*** fern are Homosporous
Homosporous=same spores
ALL seed plants and a few seedless vascular plant are heterosporous
Heterosporous
megaspore
female gametophyte or megagametophyte
microspore
male gametophyte or microgametophyte
Phylum Psilophyta
(seedless plants)
"**Psilotum nudum"
(whisk fern)
-most primitive vascular plants coz it has no true leave and root
-has dichotonously branching limbs, no root but have leaf like outgrowths in their stems
Phylum Sphenophyta
"*Equisetum hyemale" (horsetails or *scouring rushed;use to scrub pots and pans)
- Have SiO2(Silica)in stem
-*stem is used for photosyn.
-nonphotosyn.leave called leave sheath
-Strobillus ahs its spores
-Living fossils = 400 million years ago
Phylum Pterophyta
(seedless plants)
-Holly fern
-responsible for life cycle of fern
- Sporophyte is dominant
- Remember
Sorus, Annulus,*Prothallus
Sorus
(plu. = sori)
One sorus have so many sporangium(contains spores)
" cluster of sporangia"
Annulus
when it is dried out,it causes the sporangium to break open exposing the spores to air currents
*Prothallus or Prothallium
(heart-shape stucture)
in fern
- a bisexual gametophyte
because it has both Archegonium and Antheridium on there
**Circinate Vernation
Cicular growth pattern of the fiddle head associated with immature sporophyte** of fern