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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
any observable activity of a living organism
behavior
how organisms make 'decisions' that influence their survival and reproductive success
what ecological studies of behavior focus on
-not conscious
-influence survival and reproductive success
-molded by natural selection
behavioral 'decisions'
instinctive and learned
2 types of behavior
performed w/o being learned, triggered by simple sign stimuli, fixed-action pattern
instinctive behavior
response, stereotype motor program
fixed-action pattern
what triggers the action
sign stimuli
responses change with experience
learned behavior
imprinting, spatial learning, insight learning, habituation
categories of learned behavior
time-dependent, triggered by exposure to sign stimulus during a sensitive period
imprinting
response becomes associated witha novel stimulus
classical conditioning
voluntary action becomes associated with its consequences
operant conditioning
individual learns not to respond to a stimulus that has neither good nor bad consequences
habituation
cognitive map created through experience
spatial learning
animal solves a problem without trial-and-error attempts at a solution
insight learning
energetic costs, risk costs, opportunity costs
what tradeoffs organisms must balance when choosing what to eat
carbon gain, nutrients/vitamins, safety
what an organism may choose to optimize
reduced predation by improved detection or repulsion, improved foraging efficiency, improved territoriality against other groups, improved care of offspring
advantages of social systems
increased competition w/i group for food, mates, and nesting, increased risk of infection, increased exploitation of parental care, increased risk of killed offspring
disadvantages of social systems
benefits recipient and performer
cooperative
costs the recipient, benefits the performer
selfish
benefits the recipient, costs the performer
altruistic
costs the recipient, costs the performer
spiteful
sacrifice their reproductive success to help others
altruistic behavior
benefits of increasing a relative's reproductive success are greater than the cost of decreasing the altruist's own reproductive success
kin selection
altruists pass on genes indirectly by helping relatives who have copies of those genes to survive and reproduce
theory of indirect selection
total effect of any act must include its effect on your reproductive success and its effect on your kin and their reproductive value
concept of inclusive fitness
probability of possessing an allele by common descent
coefficient of relatedness, r
personal fitness + kinship component =
inclusive fitness
r X number of surviving offspring =
personal fitness
costs the recipient, benefits the performer
selfish
benefits the recipient, costs the performer
altruistic
costs the recipient, costs the performer
spiteful
sacrifice their reproductive success to help others
altruistic behavior
benefits of increasing a relative's reproductive success are greater than the cost of decreasing the altruist's own reproductive success
kin selection
altruists pass on genes indirectly by helping relatives who have copies of those genes to survive and reproduce
theory of indirect selection
total effect of any act must include its effect on your reproductive success and its effect on your kin and their reproductive value
concept of inclusive fitness
probability of possessing an allele by common descent
coefficient of relatedness, r
personal fitness + kinship component =
inclusive fitness
r X number of surviving offspring =
personal fitness
certain behaviors that are normally directed toward relatives may sometimes be directed toward nonrelatives, the redirected behavior is...
nonadaptive
one male, one female
monagamy
one male, many females
polygyny
one female, many males
polyandry
males spread gametes indiscriminately
promiscuous
where there is large variation in territory quality
when polygyny is favored
social mating system where individuals give up mating to support reproduction of group
eusociality
in eusociality, adults, parent and offspring...
live together in groups
in eusociality, there is cooperation in ... and ...
nest building and brood care
in eusociality, individuals may be ...
sterile
in eusociality, males are ...
haploid
in eusociality, females are ...
diploid
study of births, deaths, and the dynamic forces which regulate the number of individuals in a population
population ecology
clumped, random, spaced
types of spatial patterns
may indicate competing individuals
spaced
may indicate social patterns or resource distribution
clumped
geometric and exponential
types of population growth models
used where there is a discrete breeding season
geometric
used when populations are growing continuously
exponential
contributoin of each individual to population growth X number of individuals in population =
rate of change in population size
N(t) = N(0) X ert
exponential growth model
r is positive
population grows
r is zero
population stays the same
r is negative
population shrinks
-used for determining changes in population size
-summarizes age-specific data on survival and fecundity
-often include only females
life tables
timetable of individual organisms life
life histories
number of reproductive events
parity
number of offspring per event
fecundity
timetable is modified by ...
environment
peak amount of births in the sheep population were at ...
middle age
follows a single group of similarly aged organisms through life
cohort life table
requires age of all individuals in a population to estimate survivorship
static life table
rate when N is close to 0 X # of individuals in pop. (N) X reduction in rate due to crowding =
pop. growth rate (r)
carrying capacity, defined by environment
K
r = r0 X (1-N/K)
logistic growth model
stops at carrying capacity
logistic population growth model
effects that increase with crowding
density dependent factors
factors that maintain population size close to carrying capacity
starvation, disease, places to live
makes the logistic model true
density dependent factors
the rule for natural populations, often have period cycles
fluctuations
a fluctuating population cycle that tens to be irregular in occurrence
temporal variation in the environment
a fluctuating population cycle that depends on birth rate, survival rates, and other life history characteristics
time delays in response of population
temporal variation in environment and time delays in response of population
2 kinds of fluctuating population cycles
assemblage of coexisting organisms
biological community
close association between species regulates distribution of whole community
closed community
species are distributed independently to one another, regulated by environmental conditions
open community
species evolve based on another species that is out there
coevolution
organization in an open community
individualistic
organization in a closed community
holistic
boundaries in an open community
diffuse
boundaries in a closed community
distinct
species range in an open community
independent
species range in a closed community
coincident
coevolution in an open community
uncommon
coevolution in a closed community
prominent
ecologists believe most in ... communities
open
competition, predation, herbivory, mutualism, disease
types of community interactions
-/-
competition
any use or defense of a resource by an individual that decreases the resource availability to others
competition
competition within a species
intraspecific
competition among species
interspecific
food, water, nutrients, and space
resources needed for growth and reproduction
any factor consumed by an organism and supports increased population growth rates
resource
where competition is most for a single resource is most intense
limiting factor
two species cannot coexist indefinitely on the same limiting resource
competitive exclusion principle
coexistence of species is more common in ...
natural systems
resources are ... so that there is little ... competition for the same resource
partitioned ... direct
(+/-)
Predation, Herbivory, Disease
competition outcome can be influenced by ...
predators
predators and species ...
coexist
(+/+)
Mutualism
both organisms are positively affected
mutualism
where the two organisms live together
symbiosis
assemblage of coexisting organsims
biological community
describe number and abundance of species
community ecologists
total number of species
species richness
proportion of each species
relative abundance
more species and more equal abundance
more diversity