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What is
taxonomy?
field of biology concerned with classifying organisms and viruses; accepted pattern is
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
(do kings play chess on fine green sand)
what is systematics?
the reconstruction and study of evolutionary relationships (phylogenies)
what is phylogeny?
the evolutionary history of an organism, including which species are closely related and in what order related species evolved; often represented in the form or an evolutionary tree that are constructed based on morphological analysis, DNA sequences, and geographical information
what are the 3 Domains?
Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria
what are the 3 Kingdoms of the Eukarya Domain?
Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia
small, single celled, cell wall, no nucleus, can live in extreme conditions, what domain?
Archaea
what domain have the greatest # niches
Bacteria
what is protista made up of?
polyphyletic group or organisms that do not fit within Animalia, Plantae, or Fungi
name 3 facts of Fungi
1. has a cell wall, 2. external digestion, and 3. lacking photosynthesis capability
what is convergent evolution?
the independent development of similar structures in organisms that are not directly related; often found in organisms living in similar environments
what is derived character?
a characteristic used in taxonomic analysis representing a departure from the primitive (ancestor)
what is derived character in cladistics?
characteristics between the branch points of a cladogram that are shared by all organisms above the branch point and are NOT present in any below it
WHAT IS cladistics?
a taxonomic technique used for creating hierarchies or organisms that represent true phylogenetic relationship and descent
what is ancestral characteristics?
characteristics that have arisen in organisms as a result of common evolutionary descent
in cladistics, to determine whether character states are ancestral or derived we use...
polarize
In cladistics, one of two or more distinguishable forms of a character, such as the presence or absence of teeth in amniote vertebrates
character state
what is cladogram and what are the steps to construct 1.
a graphical representation of POSSIBLE evolutionary relationships, based on polarization of characters, in which taxa are placed at the tips, not at the branch points, of the phylogenetic tree and shared, derived characteristics common to taxa above the branch point are placed at the branch point.
1. gather data on characters to be used,
2. establish the character states (teeth),
3. polarize the characters (ancestral or derived)
4. select an outgroup (closely related to but not a member)
5. apply principle of parsimony (hypothesis that requires the fewest assumptions)
what is a group containing all descendants of a common ancestor
clade
in systematics, a derived character that is shared by clade members; best mechanism to analyze the evolutionary sequence in the development of a complex character
synapomorphy (I remember this by saying the derived (new) characters are synapy...synapomorphy)
plesiomorphy
in cladistics, another term for an ancestral character state
n cladistics, what is another term for a shared ancestral/primitive or outgroup character state
symplesiomorphy (I remember this by saying the primitive trait is the most symplesiomorphy)
what is homoplasy?
in cladistics, a shared character state that has not been inherited from a common ancestor exhibiting that state; may result from convergent evolution or evolutionary reversal. The wings of birds and of bats, which are convergent
principle state that scientists should favor the hypothesis that requires the fewest assumptions; simplest phylogenetic tree should be chosen
principle of parsimony
what is monophyletic?
in phylogenetic classification, a group that includes the most recent common ancestor of the group AND ALL its descendants. A clade is a monophyletic group.
what is paraphyletic?
in phylogenetic classification, a group that includes the most recent common ancestor of the group, BUT NOT all its descendants
what is polyphyletic?
in phylogenetic classification, a group that does NOT INCLUDE the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group
the concept that defines species as groups of populations that have the potential to interbreed and that are reproductively isolated from other group
biological species concept (BSC)
the concept that defines species on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships
phylogenetic species concept (PSC)
what is reproductive isolation?
not being able to mate outside one's group
what is character displacement?
when morphological difference is accentuated between organisms because of resource competition
An ______ is an organism that is considered not to be part of the group in question, but is closely related to the group.
outgroup
based on the idea of neutral mutations not being acted on by natural selections and occurring at a constant rate; consequently, in evolutionary theory, the methodt has as its basis is the rate of evolution of a molecule is constant through TIME and can be tracked
molecular clock
WHAT IS horizontal gene transfer?
transfer of genes between different species, both prokaryotic or eukaryotic
-age of ~4.5by
-early reducing atmosphere including carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide, methane, no oxygen
ancient earth
oldest microfossils
prokaryotes, emerging ~3.5 by a Eukaryotic cells were not until ~2.1 bya & multicellular organisms not until ~700 mya
included assembling a reducing atmosphere with H2, CH4, NH3, and H2S, placing this atmosphere over liquid water, increasing the temperature of the gases, and providing energy with electrical spark discharges which produced amino acid glycine, hydrogen cyanide, and formaldehyde
Miller Urey experiment
what would happen if If the atmosphere had been an oxidizing one?
life may never have arisen because oxygen is corrosive and tends to strip off electrons there by destroying organic compounds...the reducing atmosphere promoted buildup of organic compounds
what is the probable chemical PATHWAY to origin of life
C, H, O, N → CH4 and NH3 → amino acid → proteins
what does cellular organization, sensitivity, growth, development, reproduction, regulation, homeostasis, and heredity describe?
properties of life
what is the result of mutation, sexual reproduction, multicellularity, horizontal gene transfer, and endosymbiosis
The diversity of life
catalysis
can be carried out by enzymes and RNA acting as a ribozyme
Bacteria and Archaebacteria Domains
contain no eukaryotes (Archea and eukaryotes are more closely related to each other than to bacteria.)
results from sexual reproduction, endosymbiosis, horizontal gene transfer, and mutation
life's diversity
Eukaryotic cells acquired mitochondria (purple and chloroplasts (from cyanobacteria) through what?
endosymbiosis
deep-sea vent hypothesis is based on what?
formation of prebiotic organic molecules resulting from temperature gradients of the cold ocean water mixing with hot water and hot gaseous substances released from the vents
formation of prebiotic organic molecules resulting from early Earth being bombarded by carbonaceous chondritic meteorites carrying carbon to the early earth
ET hypothesis
prebiotic synthesis of polymers not possible in aqueous solutions but will form on clay surface
polymerization of prebiotic organic molecules
characteristics of protobionts
- internal polymers contained information
-bounday membrane separating internal from external environments
- protobionts capable of self-replication
what is suggested to be first macromolecule found in protobionts
RNA ( RNA would have been chemically selected for because it can act as an enzyme (ribozyme) and can self-replicate)
vesicle surrounded by a lipid layer - may have formed the hollow spheres of phospholipids
liposomes (lipospheres)
Droplets that form spontaneously from the association of charged polymers; tend to absorb and incorporate substances from environment so semipermeable membrane surrounding first protocell could have been very similar
coacervates
what is found in nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts
DNA
what is radioisotope dating
Fossils can be dated using a measured amount of a given isotope as well as the amount of isotope (decay product) produced when the isotope decays
what is Half-life?
length of time required for exactly one-half of original isotope to decay
If you started with 10g of Carbon-14, in 5730 years you would have what ?
.5g of Carbon-14 and .5g of Nitrogen-14
probably anaerobic, heterotrophic, prokaryotic and arose during Archean Eon
earliest cells
Protocells would have been present before the development of a true cell but...
would have had specific characteristics such as a lipid and protein membrane surrounding it and would have contained a biochemical pathway for energy metabolism.
appearance of Hominids
Tertiary Period
endosymbiosis
prokaryotic cells being engulfed and becoming internal symbionts within an early eukaryotic cell
rapid increase in major animal groups' diversity; oxygen levels support larger animals
Cambrian Explosion
appear in fossil record Ordovician Period
land plants
reptiles
appear during Carboniferous Period
existed from the Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous
Dinosaurs
mammals
arose from mammal-like reptiles in the Triassic but remained small and insignificant while dinosaurs dominated
have occurred about 4 or 5 times in fossil record, due in some cases to catastrophic changes
mass extinctions
suitable organisms a virus is capable of infecting
host range
targeting of specific range of cells within suitable organism
tissue tropism
genetic alteration of a cell's genome by the introduction of foreign DNA
transformation
what is prions?
a class of infectious proteins with no associated nucleic acid; causes Mad-cow disease
a virus that after being integrated into the host cell chromosomes, it does not begin replicating immediately; HIV virus is an example of such
latent virus
what has a glycoprotein on its surface, called gp120, that fits a cell-surface marker protein called CD4 on the surfaces of the immune system cells called macrophages and T cells; this virus is closely related a chimpanzee virus
HIV infection
viruses that can infect bacteria
phages
what is an envelope?
a layer of lipoprotein and glycoprotein that covers the outer surface of some viruses
causes lysis of their hosts (lytic)
virulent virus
temperate virus
becomes established as stable parts of the host cell genome (lysogenic)
virus in a new host with a lethality rate in excess of 50%; example is Ebola virus; these viruses are able to jump from one species to another; hantavirus originates in deer mice and causes hemorrhagic-type fever; SARS is completely new form of corona virus
emerging virus
they are tiny, naked molecules of RNA a few hundred nucleotides long whose sequence resembles intron sequences in rRNA genes; they are causative agents of plant diseases
viroids
what cycle integration and stabilizing of viral genes into the host cell's genome
lysogenic cycle
host cell lyses, releasing many viral particles
lytic cycle
the switch from a lysogenic prophage to a lytic cycle
induction
what causes cancer?
may be caused by viruses through triggering the expression of cancer-causing genes present in the genome
what is coronaviruses?
fall into 3 groups based on their surface proteins
parasitic viral DNA that has been integrated into the chromosome of its bacterial host
prophage
influenza virus
3 major types of flu virus (A< B< and C), only Type A can occur in human, other mammals, and birds; the flue subtype is determined by the kinds of proteins representing the H and N protein spikes making up the capsid of the virus; different strains of the virus requires different vaccines; genetic recombination is primarily responsible for the high diversity in strains; genetic recombination between flu strains from different species is common
virus is able to hide from host's immune system by integrating itself into the host cell's genome and not producing new viruses...e.g., chickenpox may be followed, years later, with shingles with both the result of the same viral infection
latent viral infection
spans from the point of phage adsorption to the point at which the first phage progeny have matured with an infected cell
eclipse period
what is prion?
misshapen protein agents that may convert other proteins in the cell to also become these agents
entry into hose because portions of capsid adhere to specific receptor on host Cell's outer surface...viral nucleic acid enter hose cell and codes for protein units inside capsid...takes over metabolic machinery of host cell
viral reproduction
capsid: outer layer composed of protein subunits; protein on surface can interact with a protein on the surface of the host cell
nucleic acid core: inner most portion is made of DNA or RNA

envelope: possessed by some viruses; are lipid bilayers surrounding virus capsid

spike: glycoproteins that project from some enveloped viruses allowing for attachment of the virus to the targeted host cell
virus structure (smaller than bacteria)
what is a capsid?
outer layer composed of protein subunits; protein on surface can interact with a protein on the surface of the host cell
what is the core of a nucleic acid?
inner most portion is made of DNA or RNA
what is spike?
glycoproteins that project from some enveloped viruses allowing for attachment of the virus to the targeted host cell
what are Viruses?
obligate acellular parasites that do not themselves possess a cell. They are, essentially, chemical complexes of RNA or DNA protected by protein. A virus particle can also be referred to as a virion.
what is based on sequencing of proteins, DNA and RNA
prokaryote classification
prokaryote facts
1) oldest organisms on Earth with fossils ~3.5 billion years old
2) structurally simplest organisms
3) most abundant life forms on earth
4) lack a discrete nucleus and other organelles or cell inclusions
cyanobacteria
group of bacteria that produced oxygen and changed the Earth's atmosphere from an anoxic one to one rich in oxygen
how do prokaryotes differing from eukaryotes
cell size, multicellularity, chromosomes, organelles, reproduction
bacteria differing from Achaea
1. cell wall composition 2. plasma membrane make-up 3. DNA replication 4. gene expression
true or false: Do Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes both have ribosomes?
true
T or F: Archaea are able to live in the most extreme environments.
True
prokaryote structure (bacteria)
have cell walls consisting of a network of polysaccharides connected by cross links of polypeptides (peptidoglycan)
pili - hairlike structures that occur on the cells of some gram-negative prokaryotes...important in adhesion; specific form has role in conjugation

flagella - used for movement

have enzymes used for cellular respiration attached to cell membrane

have 3 shapes (due to cell walls): bacillus, coccus, and spirillum
occurs through conjugation (depends on presence of conjugative plasmids when genes are transferred through rigid, tubular sex pili), transduction (occurs when viruses (bacteriophage) package host DNA and transfer it upon subsequent infection), transformation (bacterial cells pick up free pieces of DNA from the medium-pieces that were released from dead bacteria), and exchange of R plasmids (plasmids are different from bacterial chromosomes in that plasmids have few genes, bacterial chromosome have many)
exchange of genetic material via horizontal transfer
gram-positive Vs gram-negative
positive bacteria have a thicker peptidoglycan wall with small amounts of teichoic and lipoteichoic acid and will stain a purple color...
gram-negative contain lipopolysaccharides, less peptidoglycan and no acids and do not retain the purple-colored dye; differences in cell's wall determines outcome of the Gram stain
lipopolysaccharides in the outer membrane of certain bacteria make them more resistant to penicillin
found in the lower intestine of warm blooded animals; 5000 genes, help host by producing vitamin K2
E. coli
what are endospores?
thick-walled structures that contain chromosome and small amount of cytoplasm...these are formed in response to environmental stress (e.g., low nutrients)
what is an example of a diazotrophs (nitrogen fixing bacteria)...only organisms (bacteria group) capable of taking gaseous nitrogen and combining it with hydrogen to make ammonia
Rhizobium
this pathway begins with atmospheric nitrogen ( Dinitrogen; unusable by plants in this form because of strength of N-N triple bond), bacterial nitrogenase(enzyme that catalyzes the reactions); ammonia; conversion by plants or algae; synthesis of proteins
nitrogen fixation and use
what is binary fission?
reproductive process that produces identical cells by simple splitting
what is nucleoid region
area where prokaryotic DNA is found (no membrane)
obligate aerobes require what?
requires oxygen
facultative aerobes
can use oxygen or not
obligate anaerobe
organisms poisoned by oxygen
aerotolerent anaerobes
do not use oxygen but can survive exposure to it
two kinds of organisms living together in ways beneficial to both is a....
mutualism
prokaryotic metabolism
1. photoautotrophs carry out photosynthesis (cyanobacteria use chlorophyll a)
2. chemolithoautotrophs - energy through oxidizing inorganic substances (nitrifiers oxidize ammonia or nitrite to obtain energy, producing nitrate that is taken up by plants)

3. photoheterotrophs - purple and green nonsulfur bacteria use light as energy source and carbon from organic molecules

4. chemoheterotrophs - obtain both carbon atoms and energy from organic molecules (humans)
Kingdom includes all eukaryotes (such as protozoa, algae, water molds, slime molds, etc) except green plants, animals and fungi (allows them to be classified into one kingdom)....most diverse of four eukaryotic kingdoms, not monophyletic ( means that all protists are not more closely related to each other than they are to some other kinds of organisms); majority reproduce asexually most of the time, but under stress conditions will reproduce sexually
Protists
why Algae are not considered plants ?
because they lack plant structures such as roots
have disk-shaped motochondrial cristae

have kinetoplasts

have glycolysis in the peroxisomes

have a protenacious pellicle (interlocking proteins strips) within plasma membrane

2 flagella, different lengths (no cilia)
Euglenozoa
pseudopodia (amoeboids)
movement and feeding
protective outer covering on dormant cell
cyst
trichocyst
defense and capture of prey
pyrenoid
specialized area in algae for CO2 fixation and production of starch
propel the organism, collect food, and propel reproductive cells
flagella (zooflagellates)
propulsion and feeding
cilia (ciliates)
protistan cysts
may arise from sexual or asexual reproduction; facilitate spread of pathogens from one host to another and consumption can lead to human health problems
protistan nutrition
phagotropic, osmotrophic, autotrophic, mixotrophic
slimy or hard protective coverings, toxins, sharp projectiles, bioluminescence, and/or spines
protistan defense mechanisms
phagocytosis
the capture of food particles by a cell
origin of both chloroplasts and mitochondria
endosymbiosis
secondary endosymbiosis
A host cell ingests another cell already containing a primary symbiont.
marine multicellular protists including the larger brown algae are unique in that they have hairy flagella
stramenopiles
not considered plants because lack plant structures such as roots or xylem
algae
choanoflagellates
filter bacterial food from the water through the collars on the cells; structure similar to one on sponges
Choanoflagellates are the group of protists most closely related to?
animals, including humans
belong with non-green algae; photosynthetic; unicellular; unique double shells made of opaline silica; some move using raphes which are lined with vibrating fibrils
diatoms
conjugation
exchange of genetic material in ciliates
red tides
caused by dinoflagellates, responsible for massive fish kills
resemble tiny snails; have shells called tests composed of organic materials reinforced with grains of inorganic matter; their tests help make up many limestone deposits including the White Cliffs of Dover
foraminiferans
zooflagellates that have a role in parasitism leading to serious human diseases such as African sleeping sickness and chagas disease
kinetoplastids
have both cellular and acellular (plasmodial) form with multiple nuclei; cellular slime molds are able to aggregate under times of stress
slime molds
- have a common characteristic of presence of flattered vesicles called alveoli that are stacked in a layer below plasma membranes...similar function to Golgi bodies
- include Apicomplexa, a medically important group of parasites, one of which is Plasmodium falciparum, the malaria agent
Ciliates
Alveolata
malaria
disease caused by mosquito vector and Plasmodium parasite which belongs to the sporozoans group
believed to be immediate ancestors of plants
charophyceans
phycobilins
red pigments that give red algae their characteristic color
cellular slime molds
unicellular and amoeba like but will aggregate under times of stress to form slug and will then form a spore-forming body called a sorocarp where amoebas become encysted as spores
amoebae
move by pseudopodia extension (lack flagella)
Plasmodium falciparum
protistan parasite carried by mosquitoes causes malaria
Viridiplantae or Plantae
Kingdom of 'green plants'; arose from a charophycean (green algae)
charophytes (green algae)
predecessor of terrestrial plants; display a zygotic life cycle with a one cell diploid zygote while bryophytes and other plants exhibit a sporic life cycle with alternation of generations
haplodiplontic cycle
having multicellular haploid (gametophyte) and multicellular diploid (sporophyte) stages, unlike diplontic (humans) in which only the diploid stage is multicellular
what is gametophyte
production of gamete and sporophyte is production of the spore
the haploid or diploid gametophyte is the dominant generation in mosses and other bryophytes. Sporophytes are generally smaller or bigger and depend on the gametophyte for water and nutrients.
haploid, smaller
plant success on land
due to specialized roots, stems, specialized reproductive features, and increased area for photosynthesis in the leaves
Land plants evolved from
freshwater algae
The Charophyta are a sister clade to all the land plants. The Tracheophytes include all the land plants except for the sister clade of what ?
Bryophytes (liverworts, mosses, hornworts).
A tracheid (where term Tracheophytes is derived) is a specialized?
vascular cell
water conservation methods
waxy cuticle, spores, stomata (mouth shaped openings which allow water to diffuse out at the same time gas diffusion into an out of the plant is occurring), tracheids (specialized vascular cells that facilitate the transport of water and minerals)
adaptation for more effective water dispersal within plants
vascular systems
earliest land plants appeared ~500mya;

vascular plants - ~430 mya

seed plants - ~365mya
fossil record
seed production does not require ______ as a medium for sperm transport.
water
1st successful land plants
liverworts & hornworts
Bryophytes, include liverworts, hornworts, and mosses, are non-vascular plants.
have primitive conducting systems; moss leaves and true leaves both have chlorophyll a and b; although land plants, are still tied to water because of their flagellated sperm produced in antheridia

the female gamete (produced in archegonia) of mosses is haploid, has no flagella, is produced by gametophyte generation, and is larger than male gamete
mosses
protective covering on spores
sporopollenin
primary growth
cell division at tips of stems and shoots Early vascular plants grew only by this method.
vascular plants
have tallest living specimens
plant (phyla Pterophyta) releases haploid spores during sporophyte (large plant/ dominant stage in life cycle) generation --> gametophytes; comparisons between mosses and ferns is that both kinds of plants have flagellated sperm that have to swim to reach female gamete and both have wind dispersal of spores. But the sporophyte generation is much larger than the gametophyte generation in ferns yet is smaller than the gametophyte generation in mosses and spores are produced in capsules on stalks in mosses but in small structure called sori on the underside of leaves in ferns.
ferns
name 2 facts about fern.
a seedless vascular plant, requires water for fertilization.
environmental effects of burning of plant related products
burning peat, wood, coal, and petroleum release the carbon dioxide that plants removed and stored in tissue and increases in CO2 triggers temperature rise by retaining solar heat
pollen
male gametophytes
first seed plants; includes Coniferophyta, Ginkgophyta, Cycadophyta, and Gnetophyta; produce "naked" seeds since they are not enclosed in fruit
gymnosperms
cycads
longest surviving group of gymnosperms
used by the following angiosperms: oaks, grasses, and birches
wind pollination
what is Pollination
the transport of pollen from a microsporangium to a stigma whereas fertilization is the fusion of a sperm with an egg.
this process is unique to angiosperms, consists of fertilization of an egg by one sperm and of the nucleus of an endosperm-forming cell by another sperm, and leads to the formation of a diploid zygote and the typically triploid primary endosperm nucleus
double fertilization
mature ripened ovary containing fertilized seeds
fruit
includes embryo (sporophyte), endosperm (food source for embryo), and a protective cover
seed
produce two kinds of gametophytes; pollen grains are conveyed to female gametophyte by wind or pollinators, sperm reaches eggs by traveling through a pollen tube and a dormant phase is introduced into the life cycle. use meiosis to produce microspores and megaspores
seed plants
Seed plants include
gymnosperms and angiosperms, but only angiosperms have flowers, fruits, and endosperm in seeds.
rhizoids
colorless root-like projections of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts, which anchor them to the substrate
pore-like structures on leaves that open & close depending on environmental conditions thereby regulating intake of carbon dioxide, release of oxygen, and loss of water.
stomata
polymer on the leaves of vascular plants that protects them from pathogens
cutin
xylem
transports water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to stems & leaves
phloem
transports carbohydrates (food) away from green parts of plant to rest of plant
roots, shoots, and leaves contain 3 basic tissue types: dermal (protection: wax & bark), ground (storage, photosynthesis, secretion), vascular (conduction: xylem --> water, dissolved minerals; phloem --> nutrient containing solution)
plant organization
they are undifferentiated cells that can produce new tissues and serve as a framework for the positioning of leaves; modified stems include tendrils, tubers, corm, and rhizomes
stem
have a central column of xylem with radiating arms, alternating with strands of primary phloem; root hairs increase surface area for absorption of water and minterals; specialized versions include buttress, pneumatophore, prop, lateral
roots
primary location for photosynthesis
leaf
leaf epidermis
includes stoma (pores), guard cells, trichomes, cuticular wax
simple vs/ compound leaves
simple leaves have a single subdivision or leaflet; compound have blade divided into leaflets
meristematic cells
plant cells that give rise to two cells, one of which is free to differentiate into various kinds of cells that contribute to the plant body
Meristems –
can be apical or lateral
apical meristem
location of primary growth that results in an increase in height or length; primary growth at the apical meristems can produce cells that differentiate into leaves, ground tissue, procambium, and epidermis (no bark).
Plant embryos grow into seedlings by adding new cells at only two growth points, what are they?
the shoot and root apical meristems.
cork cambium
growing center (lateral meristem) that gives rise to outer layers of bark on both root and shoots
vascular cambium
it develops between the primary xylem and the primary phloem in dicots and ultimately gives rise to secondary xylem and phloem
allows leaf blades to grow larger as a result of cell division
marginal meristems
parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma
ground tissue
lateral meristem
where cell division occurs resulting in secondary growth of plants; woody plants have two types --> cork cambium & vascular cambium
what cells function in storage, photosynthesis, and as the bulk of ground and vascular tissues; also occur within the xylem and phloem of vascular bundles; make up the edible parts of most vegetables and fruit
parenchyma cells
collenchyma cells
provide support for plant organs in which secondary growth (lateral meristem cell division) has not yet occurred and are alive at maturity; consists of elongated supporting cells with unevenly thickened cells walls, usually located in strands beneath the epidermis (celery strings)
what cells lack cytoplasm and protoplasts at maturity, may be impregnated with lignin, are tough and thick-walled (secondary), and serve to strengthen tissues...examples: fibers and sclereids
sclerenchyma cells (These cells do not divide throughout the life of the plant.)
what is a Node and Internode?
NODE is Point of attachment of leaf to stem
Internode = Area of stem between two nodes
what is a Blade and a Petiole
Blade = Flattened part of leaf
Petiole = Stalk that connects flattened leaf blade to stem (in most dicots)
what is a Axil, Axillary bud and Terminal bud
Axil = Angle between petiole/blade and stem
Axillary bud = found in the angle between the petiole and a stem; develops into branches with leaves or may form flowers
Terminal bud = Extends the shoot system during the growing season
closely packed column-like cells within a leaf, just beneath the upper epidermis
palisade parenchyma
what are trichomes
outgrowths of the epidermis that occur on the shoot
parts of angiosperm phloem lined up end-to-end forming tubes
sieve-tube members
what cells are designed for transport?
xylem vessel members, sieve tube members, tracheids, & sieve cells, but water is conducted through the vessel members most rapidly.
stomata
openings within the epidermis of leaves through which gas (CO2 in and O2 out) and water passes (helps to control loss of water and water vapor; surrounded by guard cells; allows necessary passage of material through the waterproof cuticle covering the epidermis of land plants
mesophyll tissue
tissue layers of palisade and spongy parenchyma cells in the middle of a leaf, between the upper and lower epidermis; filled with many chloroplasts
monocot vs dicot (eudicot)
monocot: vascular bundles are scattered throughout the ground tissue in stems and leaves have parallel veins; no vascular cambium therefore, no secondary growth

dicot (eudicot): vascular bundles are arranged around perimeter of ground tissue in stems and leaves have netted venation
what are major distinguishing feature between monocot vs dicot?
organization of vascular tissue
contains vessel members, tracheids, fibers, and rays...WATER MOVES MOST RAPIDLY through the vessel members but in woody tissues, rays are most efficient at conducting water horizontally.
xylem tissue
What is the diffusion of water vapor from a plant? This process is responsible for the water drawn up the plant stem from the roots and is also responsible for the loss of 90% of all water taken in.
transpiration
what does a vascular bundle contain ?
xylem and phloem.
state 5 facts of phloem
- contains elongated conducting cells
- contains two types of cells, sieve cells and sieve tube members
- Some of its cells lack a nucleus at maturity
- Some of its cells contain clusters of pores
- conducts nutrients
plant's dry weight
94% comes from Carbon osygen, and hydrogen
what is the removal harmful chemicals from the soil by plants
phytorediation
TCE (trichloroetheylene)
carcinogenic to humans
erosion
can cause a loss of soil mineral nutrients in cultivated communities
carnivorous plants
evolved because of habitats with extremely limited nitrogen
hydroponic culture
Plants are suspended with their roots in a nutrient solution.
Includes: C,O,H,N,K,Ca, Mg, P & S
- They approach or exceed 1% of a healthy plant's dry weight.
- A deficiency in any one can have severe effects on a plant's growth.
- They can have important implications for human nutrition.
- The ability of the plants to uptake minerals is affected by soil pH.
macronutrients
includes: Cl, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, Cu, & Mo
- a deficiency makes the plant susceptible to herbivores
micronutrients
organic fertilizers
have an advantage over inorganic because organic release nutrients more slowly
what is citrate used for?
released by genetically modified plants which makes phosphate in soils more soluble
does not require oxygen for photosynthesis
plant growth
what is ammonia (NH3) used for
needed by plants to build amino acids
Nod factor
important component of legume-bacterial interactions
mycorrhizal fungi/plant symbiotic relationship
more prevalent than the symbiotic relationships between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and plants
top soil volume
largest proportion is air and water
soil characteristics
- made up of one or more kinds of minerals
- is product of weathering of rocks, - mineral and organic soil particles have mostly negatively-charged surfaces with negatively charged ions predominate in the soil solution.
why is it beneficial to plants that soil particles have negatively-charged surfaces?
because they attract positively-charged ions and prevent them from being washed deep into the soil.
elevated atmospheric CO2
has potential increase growth rates, to alter the nutritional status of plants, and to increase herbivory
what are some methods to increasing nutrient availability to crop plants
- adding humus to soil
- crop rotation
- plowing crop residue under
- applying chemical fertilizers
what are The most important mineral nutrients added to soils in fertilizers ?
nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium.
insectivorous plants
grow in acidic soils with low nitrogen
what is most limiting element for plant growth, especially in relation to the plant's carbon uptake.
Nitrogen
what are released during the initiation of nitrogen fixation nodules to signal the Rhizobium bacteria
flavonoids
what especially effective in helping plant roots uptake phosphorus
mycorrhiza
most energetically expensive reaction - splitting the triple bonds of a N2 molecule with the nitrogenase enzyme requires 16 ATPs
nitrogen fixation