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24 Cards in this Set

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sensory receptors
structures that detect changes in the environment; made up of modified neutrons and cells, converts energy stimuli into changes in membrane potential which in turn transmits signals to the nervous system by four functions
reception
ability of a cell to absorb energy of the stimulus
transduction
actual conversion of stimulus energy into the receptor potential of a receptor cell
amplification
strengthening of stimulus energy that is otherwise too weak to be carried into the nervous system
integration
processing of information; signals integrate through summation of graded potentials; each signal interpreted varies by sensitivity
mechanoreceptors
stimulate by physical deformation caused by such stimuli as pressure, touch, stretch, motion, sound (forms of mechanical energy)
stretching
plasma membrane stretched increases permeability and depolarization (muscle spindle-stretch receptor)
touch
relies on modified denrites of sensory neurons, location close to the surface of the skin or in deep skin layer, helps define the magnitude of the touch
motion
ex. hair cell, hair that lines the skin helps detect motion when a force bends the hair, which in turn stretches the permeability of the cell
the eye cup
provides information about light intensity and direction w/o forming an image; when light hits the invertebrate, only one eye can feel the intensity, therefore telling the direction of the light
rod cells
sensitive to light, dont distinguish color, most animals have b/c nocturnal
cone cells
color/ minority has alot of this: humans, primates, fish
fovea
rods are found in the greatest density at the peripheral regions of the retina and are completely absent from the ______ the center of the visual field
Cone colors
red, green and blue!
cochlea
(snail) coiled organ involved in hearing; has two large fluid-filled chambers separated by the cochlear duct
volume
determined by the amplitude (height) of the soundwave
pitch
determined by frequency (# of vibrations per second)
lateral line system
a mechanoreceptor system of pores and receptor units along sides of the body of fish and aquatic amphibians; detects water movements made by the animal itself and other moving objects
statocysts
sensory organs of most invertebrates that contain mechanoreceptors and function in their sense of equilibrium
Microfilaments
contractile system; amoevoid movement or contraction of muscle cells
hydrostatic skeleton
consists of fluid held under pressure in a closed body
peristalisis
a type of locomotion produced by rhythmic waves of muscle contractions passing from head to tail; used by earthworms and other annelids
cross bridge
the thick myosin filamentsare covered with myosin heads that bind to sites on the actin filaments, forming a ______, and pull the thin filament toward the sacromere. This decreases the overall length of the sacromere, which ultimately results in the contraction of muscles
Microtubules
contractile system; cilia and flagella