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150 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What division/class/series has a dikroytic secondary mycelium?
What are some examples of a hymenomycetes?
Coprinus (inky cap commone lawn mushroom)
Agaricus (common edible mushroom)
Amanita (deadly species)
bracket fungi, polypores, and coral fungi
What is the genus of a puffball?
What is the genus of the bird's nest fungus
How do we distinguish the groups in Prostista?
cell wall chemistry, food reserve, flagella/cillia, pigments
What is the division Oomycota commonly known as?
water molds
What is the cell wall in Oomycota made of?
What are some characteristics of Oomycota?
coenocytic hyphae produced, motile cells with one tinsel and one whiplash flagellum, diploid with gametic meiosis, many=series plant parasites
What is an example of an Oomycota?
Saprolegnia-"ich" on fish, has asexual(zoospore) and sexual (gametes) for reproduction
-Plasmopara viticola ("drowney mildrew grape" bad on french wine fixed by Bordeaus Mixture
-Phytophore infestans=caused potato famine
What is the division Myxomycota commonly known as?
plasmodialor acellular slime molds
What is the vegatative phase of Myxomycota?
plasmodium=multinucleus blob of protoplasm
what happens in the plasmodium of Myxomycota?
the sporangia when meiosis is produced
In the division Myxomycota what to the spore germinate to produce?
myxamoebae and swarm cells
What is the division Dictosteliomycota commonly known as?
cellular slime molds
What is the aggregation of amoebae in the vegitative stage calle?
pseduoplasmodium, slug, or grex
In the division dictosteliomycota, what does the sexual reproduction form?
In the division dictosteliomycota, what does asexual reproduction produce/
What does the Phylum Rhizopoda contain?
amoebae, foraminiferans (calcium carbonate test), heliozoans and raiolarians (silica test)
What are some examples in the Phylum Rhizopoda
Amoeba, Entamoeba (internal human parasite)
What are characteristics of the Phylum Zoomastiginia?
protozoa with flagella, grouped sometimes w/Rhizopoda
What are some examples of Zoomastinginia?
Trypanosoma gambinese (African sleeping sickness spread by tsetse fly), Trypanosoma cruzi ("kissing bug" beatle bites around the eyes), Giardia-water pollutant
What are some example of something in the Phylum Ciliophora?
paramecium, stentor, vorticella
What are some characteristics of the Phylum Apicomplexa
generally referred to as "sporozoans," no organelle for locomotion in adult stage, all species endoparisites
What is an example of something in the Phylum Apicomplexa?
Plasmodium vivax (malaria spread by female mosquitoes)
What is the "golden-brown algae?"
the division of Chrysophyta (under autotrophic protists)
What are the 3 classes of Chrysophyta?
Xanthophyceae, Chrysophycae, Bacillariophyceae (diamtoms)--but genearlly separate divisions
What is a diatoms divison?
What does Bacillariophyta contain?
chlorphyll a andc
What are the cell wall of Bacillariophyta made of?
What are the two parts diatoms are constructed in/
frustules and valves
What is pennate referring to?
a type of diatom, generally found in freshwater w/bilateral symmetary, motile by gliding motion, raphe present
What is centric referring to?
a type of diatom, salt-water, non-motile and lack a raphe system, radial symmetary, secrete fats and lipids to float
What are some examples of centric diatoms?
Fragillaria & Asterionella
How does Bacillariophyta reproduction work/
asexual reproduction decreases cell size, then sexual reproduction after they get so small (haploid type)
What is used as a filter and polishing indgredidant?
diatomaceous Earth
Where are there huge deposits of diatomaceous Earth?
Lompoc, California
What is the division of dinoflagellates?
What is a girdle flagellum vs a trailing flagellum? where are they found?
girdle=around the middle of the cell
trailing=projecting posterior
in dinophyta (dinoflagellates)
What are the two different types of dinoflagellates?
armered=thick plates
unarmered=thin plates
What dinoflagellate produces bioluminesance?
What species is responsible for red tides?
What are saxitoxins and what do they do/
toxins from the red tides, can cause PSP could be fatal
What is Pfiesteria piscida?
a toxic dinoflagellate in fish found in NC, produces compound in air that makes people sick
Where are zooanthellae found? what are they/
occur as symbionts in invertebrates and protozoans (cells in coral)
What are characteristics of the Euglenophyta?
no rigid cell wall, flexible protein matrix called pellicle or periplast, store paramylon for food, eyespot, cannot synthesize B12, found in dirty water
What is the division of brown algae?
Where is brown algae mostly found?
cold marine water
What does the membrane of brown algae contain/
chlorophyll a and c
What makes the brown color in brown algae?
What is the food reserve of brown algae?
What does heterkont mean?
both the tinsel and whiplash types of flagella and present (like in brown algae)
What does the cell wall of brown algaee contain?
cellulose and alginates
What is the reproduction of rockweeds?
diploid pattern
What is the reproduction cycle of kelps?
alternation of generation
What is an example of a kelp and what division is it in?
What is the reproduction cycle of a kelp?
alternation of generations life cycle
What do al diploid sporophytes have?
blades, stipe and holdfast
What is the genus of the primary kelp harvested?
Macrocystis (has float for each blade, primary source of algin on West Coast)
What is the genus of a kelp called the "bulk kelp"
Nerocystis (central floats for all blades)
What is obtained from kelp that is used in salad dressing?
The rockweeds are in what division?
Where do most rockweeds occur?
in the intertidal zones
What is the reproductive cycle of rockweeds?
diploid life cycles (gametic meiosis)
What are the reproductive parts of the rockweeds?
the swollen receptacle, contains the conceptacle, which produces sperm or eggs
What is an example of a rockweed?
What is the only free-floating member of rockweeds/
Sargassum natans, found in Sargasso Sea
-Postelsia-the sea palm
What is the divison of red algae?
where are red algae found?
warm marine waters
What are some characteristics of red algae/
no motile cells, pigments are chlorophyll a and c, alternation of generations
What are the cell walls of red algae made of?
agar or carageenan
What are the phycoblin pigments found in red algae?
phycocyanin, phycoerythrin
What are some examples of red algae?
Polysiphonia and Corallina
Porphyra-a "nori" producing species
What is corallinia responsible for?
making coral reefs, "encrusting" red algae
What is Chondrus crispus and what division is it in?
Irish moss used to make soap, Rhodophyta
What is the common name of Chlorophyta?
green algae
What reproductive cycles are known in the division Chlorophyta?
haploid and alternation of generations
What division is the probable ancestors of the plant kindgom? why?
chlorophylls a and b
cellulose cell walls
only whiplash flagella
What are some examples of unicellular, motile forms of Chlorophyta?
Chlamydomonas, isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy all occur
What is isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy?
anisogamy=1 gamate bigger, but both swim
oogamy=one bigger, doesn't swim
What creates red snow?
What is an example of a colonial, motile of division Chlorophyta?
What is an example of a non-motile, colonial Chlorophyta?
Hydrodictyon (water net)
What is an example of a unicellular, non-motiil Chlorophyta?
macrosteria (has semi-cells)
What is an example of an organism that has isomorphic alternation of generation in division Chlorophyta?
Ulva (sea lettuce)
What is a coenocytic example in the division Chlorophyta?
acetabularia (mermaid's wineglass)
What is the characteristics of a spirogyra?
reproduce by conjugation, filamentous form, spiral chloroplast with pyrenoids
The "bryophte groups" have which stage in the reproduction cycle longests?
What are bryophtes?
liverworts, hornworts, mosses
What is the division of liverworts?
what are elaters?
used to spread spores around
What is an example of a leafy liverwort?
What is an example of a thallose liverwort?
Where are leafy vs thallose liverworts common/
thallose=temperate areas
What are gammae cups, where are they used?
used w/marchantia in asexual reproduction
where is the sporophyte generation located in the marchantia/
underside of the archegoniophore
What plant contains special underleaves that are modified into "pitchers," which help retain water?
leafy Frullania
What is the division of hornworts?
What are some characteristics of Anthocerophyta?
thallose forms, no leaves
single plastid per cell
sex organis sunken in the thallus
no protonema
no oil bodies
What is an esample of an Anthocerophyta?
What is the division Bryophta's common name?
What are characteristics of Bryophyta?
leaves not bilobed, many plastids per cell, no oil bodies present, rhizoids multicellular, sex organs free, determinate growth w/sporophyte, no elaters, PERISTONE TEETH
What is the protonema stage? in what division does it happen?
spores germinate to form branching filaments, Bryophyta
What develops from the protonema in mosses?
gametophores, at the tips antheridia and archegonia are produced
What are sperm cells transferred to the archegonia in mosses?
water splashes them
What does the embryo develop into in the mosses?
an elongated sporophte with a seta and capsule (with calyptra and operculum)
how are spores produced in mosses?
meiosis produces haploid spores
How are mosses able to release their spores?
hygroscopic peristome (composed of peristome teeth)
What is an example of a moss that has antheridia and archaegonia?
What is an example of a moss with capsules?
Mnium and polytrichum
How many species of moss are there worldwide?
What are the two basic growth forms of moss/
acrocarpous-single terminal sporophytes
pleurocarpous-lateral sporophytes and are "creeping" mosses
What is a special characteristic of the Polytrichium?
capsule produces an epiphragm and short teeth; "salt-shaker" dispersal
What is the scientific name of a peat moss?
What are some characteristics of Sphagnum?
growth in acidic bogs
only commerically important Bryophyte
no filamentous protonema
has pseudopodium (female gametophye)
What specialized tissue is used to transfer water? food?
What are groups becoming better adapted to?
terrestrial environment
What is an example and some characteristics of the division rhyiophyta?
Rhynia (chert beds of England)
all extinct today
Sporophytes had no roots or leaves
sporangia produced one kind of spore=homosporous
What are some characteristiscs of the division Lycopodiophyta?
plants w/true roots and microphyllous leaves
some species produce compacted sporophylls in cone or strobilus
What are some Lycopodiaphyta that are homosporous?
Lycopodium and Huperzia
What are some Lycopodiaphyta that are heterosporous?
Isotes and Selaginella
What is the difference between microphyllous and megaphyllous leaves?
microphylls: most primitive, only one vein of xylem/phloem, no leaf gap
megaphylls: first evolve in ferns, branching veins, leaf gaps
What division is lycopodium in/
What are some unique things about lycopodium?
common in New England
used as christmas decorations
spores once used as photgraphic flash powder
What are some characteristics of Selaginella?
microphyllous and megaphyllous leaves
mega to female, micro to male
found in variety of climates
What are some characteristics of Isotes?
common name quillwort
stem is a freshly "corm"
grow in margins of ponds/lakes
What is the scientific name of "fossil trees"?
Lepidodendron, forest giant of carboniferous period, helps w/present day coal deposits
What division do ferns fall in/
What are "typical ferns" called?
What are water ferns?
What are tree ferns?
What are Grape Ferns?
What are wisk ferns?
What are horsetails?
What are some characteristics of Filicales?
plants w/megaphyllous leaves (called fronds) with leaf gaps
most species have no stem but a perennial rhizome
all species are homosporous, except water ferns
some species produce dimorhpic fronds
What is the pinna, rochis, frond, rhizome, and petiole?
pinna=individual leaves
rochis=top of leaf
frond=whole leaf
petiole=part right about rhizome
what is circinate vernation/
fronds developing in a coiled fashion
What are young, coiled fronds called?
fiddleheads, edible at this stage
How do ferns produce sporophytes?
meiosis in sporangia, fern plants are diploid sporophytes
What are sori?
clusters of sporangia on the underside of the pinnae
What does epiphtes mean?
ferns that grow in trees
What order do ferns produce an erect stem/
What fern is most common in the US?
Pleopeltis polypoides aka "resurrectioin fern"
What is an exmaple of a water fern/
What is the genus of a fossil fern/
What is unique about the order Psillotailes of ferns?
(wisk ferns), "reduced" ferns, no true roots or leaves, homospourous, erect "stem", underground "rhizome" dichotomous branching common
What is an example of a fern in the order Psilotailes?
Psilotum, produces trilobed sporangia on flaps of tissue called enations
What are two common names that occur in the order Equisetales?
horse tails and scouring rushes
characteristics: hollow, jointed stems
mircrophyllous-like leaves
How do leaves and branches occur in Equisetum?
whorls, sporangiophores instead of sporophylls
How are Equisetum constructed?
spores w/2 wall layers, outer wall is hygroscopic and humidity changes cause unwrapping of elaters (4 arms)
What is the Calamites?
fossil horsetail reconstructions