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417 Cards in this Set

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isoosmotic
when two solutions have the same osmolarity
hyperosmotic
when one solution has a greater osmolarity than another
hypoosmotic
when one solution has a more dilute solution than another
osmoconformers
isoosmotic with surroundings
{marine animals only}
live in typically osmotically stable environments
no tendency to gain or lose water
osmoregulators
must control its internal osmolarity
{all freshwater + terrestrial animals}
osmoregulators that live in a hyperosmotic environment must
take in water
osmoregulators that live in a hypoosmotic environment must
get rid of excess water
the Salt Lake is one of the most hyper or hypoosmotic environments?
hyperosmotic
stenohaline
can tolerate only narrow changes in external osmolarity
ex. goldfish--change water constantly, its high maintenance!
euryhaline
organism that can tolerate large fluctuations in external osmolarity
ex. talapia-- put it in anything and it can grow and reproduce
--its low maintenance!
ALL vertebrates are
OSMOREGULATORS
MOST invertebrates are
OSMOCONFORMERS
marine environments are dehydrating! this means you tend to lose..
water from body by osmosis
unlike saltwater fish, sharks maintain HIGH..
internal solute concentrations
hyperosmotic internally
water follows..
the higher solute concentration
HYPER osmotic
fresh water fish urinate ______ and drink ______
a LOT
little
seawater fish urinate ________ and drink _______
a little
a LOT
can osmoregulate like marine fish in salt water environments and like freshwater fish in those environments
euryhaline fish
ex. talapia, salmon
adaptations by marine animals
osmoconformers
osmoregulators
adaptations by freshwater fish
gain water by osmosis, lose salts-- drink little, urinate a lot, take up salts from outside
adaptations by terrestial animals
must prevent water loss and take in water
the key to reabsorption and secretion
the transporting epithelium
what kind of cells line the tubule?
epithelial cells
to move solutes across the epithelim requires...
specialized proteins (transporters, ion channels)
excretory systems in different organisms all share
tubular-like structures
large surface area
ability to transport water, solutes, nitrogenous wastes
kind of "immature kidneys"
protonephridia
What is metanephridia?
kidneys in earthworms
(osmoregulation + excretion)
insects and terrestrial arthropods use what for osmoregulation and excretion?w
go back to notes and catch this answer!
hollow tubules that make up the kidneys
{functional unit of the kidney}
nephrons
renal arteries branch off from the...
aorta
resides entirely in the cortex
cortical nephron
dives deep into the renal medulla; enables mammals to produce urine that is hyperosmotic to body fluids
juxtamedullary nephron
4/5 of your nephrons are...
cortical nephrons
glomerulus + Bowman's capsule
??? study this more!
glomerulus + Bowman's capsule
??? study this more!
understand the journey of the filtrate
!!
understand the journey of the filtrate
!!
kidneys produce how much filtrate?
180 Liters of filtrate
kidneys produce how much filtrate?
180 Liters of filtrate
about how much urine is excreted every day
1.5 Liters of urine
about how much urine is excreted every day
1.5 Liters of urine
about how many liters of blood are filtered every day through the kidneys?
1100-2000 Liters!
about how many liters of blood are filtered every day through the kidneys?
1100-2000 Liters!
Why bother filtering 180 L of fluid per day to reabsorb more than 99%?
*many foreign substances are filtered into the nephron but not reabsorbed- they can get out quickly!!
*maintain homeostasis!
Why bother filtering 180 L of fluid per day to reabsorb more than 99%?
*many foreign substances are filtered into the nephron but not reabsorbed- they can get out quickly!!
*maintain homeostasis!
What does "filtrate" include?
water, salts, H+, Urea, Glucose, amino acids, some drugs, HCO3-
What does "filtrate" include?
water, salts, H+, Urea, Glucose, amino acids, some drugs, HCO3-
What products must be acitvely transported through the kidneys?
Salt, H+, Nutrients, K+,HCO3-
What products must be acitvely transported through the kidneys?
Salt, H+, Nutrients, K+,HCO3-
What is absorbed into the proximal tubule?
salts, especially NaCl, water, and and nutrients
What is absorbed into the proximal tubule?
salts, especially NaCl, water, and and nutrients
What is absorbed into the descending tubule?
Go back and look at the slide!
What is absorbed into the descending tubule?
Go back and look at the slide!
Distal Tubule
??
Collecting Duct
??
removal of excess water fROM the body in urine
diuresis
drugs that cause or facilitate diuresis
diuretics
What regulates water permeability?
vasopressin
vasopressin is released from..
posterior pituitary
vasopresson is also called..
ADH antidiuretic hormone
ADH or vasopressin does what?
inhibits diuresis
what can inhibit vasopressin?
alcohol
thus you increase urination; dehydration
RAAS
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
which cells release renin?
juxtaglomerular cells
constricts in response to angiotensin 2
afferent arteriole
What senses fluid flow dynamics?
macula densa
What secrets aldosterone?
adrenal gland
ANF; released from?
atrial natriuretic factor
from heart
3/4 of nephrons are...
cortical nephrons
understand the flow of filtrate through the nephron
!!
ganglia
collection of cell bodies
role of the nervous system
integrate information, decide on appropriate response
detects important internal and external stimuli
sensory neurons
integrates information in its current context and with recent history and produces the most appropriate output.
central nervous system
carry the output of the CNS to the effector cells that produce the appropriate response
motor neurons
interneurons are part of what?
the central nervous system
the vast majority of cells in the nervous system are..
interneurons
the functional unit of the nervous system
neurons
signals sent to a neuron may be...
chemical
electrical
or sensory
chemical, electrical, and sensory input must be...
transduced at the neuron
(transduction)
cell - to - cell signals
synapse
draw a neuron!
draw it!
the number and complexity of dendrites is correlated with..
the amount of input the neuron receives
supporting cells in the nervous system that fulfill a variety of important roles
Glia cells!
functions of glia cells
structural support
maintenance of ionic compositions
remove "extra" chemicals (neurotransmitters)
insulate neurons electrically
formation of blood-brain barrier
provide a path for developing neurons
secretion of compounds for neuronal maintenance
participate in information flow in the nervous system
ex. of glia cells
ependymal cells,
schwann cells;
oligodendrocytes
astrocytes
radial glia
all neurons (cells) have a potential difference across their plasma membrane, what is this called?
membrane potential
resting potential
when neurons are not actively signaling
changes in membrane potential (Vm) reflects changes in..
cell activity
positive changes in membrane potential means..
depolarization
generally correlated with INCREASED activity! (activation)
negative changes in membrane potential means..
.. look at slide!
a change in permeability to various ions =
changes in membrane potential {Vm}!!!
action potentials
all or none, brief, regenerative
amplitude tells you nothing about the potential! its all in the number of times
what has an influence on the speed of action potential conduction?
*size (diameter) - LARGE conducts signal much faster!
*insulation (myelin sheath)
a change in permeability to various ions =
changes in membrane potential {Vm}!!!
nodes of ranvier
where ion channels that contribute to the generation of action potentials are clustered
multiple sclerosis is a ..
demylenating disease
action potentials
all or none, brief, regenerative
amplitude tells you nothing about the potential! its all in the number of times
all cells in the atrial have..
electrical synapses (gap junctions) for coordinated contractions
--its immediate
what has an influence on the speed of action potential conduction?
*size (diameter) - LARGE conducts signal much faster!
*insulation (myelin sheath)
where ion channels that contribute to the generation of action potentials are clustered
nodes of ranvier
multiple sclerosis is a ..
demylenating disease
all cells in the atrial have..
electrical synapses (gap junctions) for coordinated contractions
--its immediate
a change in permeability to various ions =
changes in membrane potential {Vm}!!!
action potentials
all or none, brief, regenerative
amplitude tells you nothing about the potential! its all in the number of times
what has an influence on the speed of action potential conduction?
*size (diameter) - LARGE conducts signal much faster!
*insulation (myelin sheath)
where ion channels that contribute to the generation of action potentials are clustered in the neuron
nodes of ranvier
multiple sclerosis is what kind of disease?
demylenating disease
all cells in the atrial have..
electrical synapses (gap junctions) for coordinated contractions
--its immediate
detect important internal and external stimuli
sensory neurons
vast majority of neurons in the central nervous system are?
interneurons
carries the output of the CNS to the effector cells the create the appropriate response
motor neurons
mechanoreceptors are...
sensory neurons
what neurons do?
they receive and transmit information
language from input to neuron
a transduction
the number and complexity of dendrites correlates with..
the amount of input the neuron receives
which ion is most permeable to the cell?
K+ ions
changes in membrane potential mean
changes in cell activity!!
the concentration ratio of K+ ions in the cell: out of the cell
30:1
the nernst equation basically states that: the equilibrium for any ion is based on...
CHARGE + CONCENTRATION GRADIENT!
Why is resting membrane more permeable to K+ than Na+?
Because Vm (resting membrane potential) is closer to Ek, than Ena
permeability of cell membrane to various ions can change, which also means...
Membrane potential can change!!
two factors that affect movement of ions
concentration gradient
charge effect
what could cause a change in the tension of the membrane, causing it to open or close?
ex. osmolarity
how do ion channels open?
changes in the membrane or channels activated by chemicals or
nongated channels {leak channels}
channels that are opened by chemicals are called
ligand-gated ion channels
two ion channels that can be opened or closed due to changes in the membrane
voltage gated ion channels
ligand-gated ion channels
magnitude of the change in membrane potential varies with stimulus strength
graded potentials
threshold
the minimum depolarization necessary to fire an action potential
stronger stimuli in an action potential generates..
higher frequency of action potentials
"jumping" conduction
saltatory conduction
EPSP
Excitatory PostSynaptic Potential
IPSP
Inhibitory PostSynaptic Potential
postsynaptic neurons sum up all their inputs in both time (temporal summation) and in space (spatial summation)
synaptic integration!
Glutamate binds to two types of glutamate receptors..
AMPA and NMDA
conscious senses
special senses
somatic senses
subconscious senses
somatic stimuli
visceral stimuli
special senses
vision, hearing, taste, smell, equilibrium
somatic senses
touch-pressure
temperature
pain
proprioception
somatic stimuli
muscle length-tension
visceral stimuli
blood pressure
pH and O2 levels in blood
pH of cerbrospinal fluid
osmolarity of body fluids
temperature
blood glucose
distension of GI tract
respond to light or electromagnetic fields
electromagnetic receptors
responds to noxious stimuli
nociceptors
What are two ions that will hyperpolarize the cell when ?released?
Cl- and K+
What are two ions that will depolarize the cell when released?
Na+ and Ca+
Ways intensity of stimulation is coded for..
frequency of action potentials generation
number of receptors activated
duration of stimulus
not all sensory receptors fire action potentials. name an example
photoreceptors
2 receptor response types
tonic receptors
phasic receptors
olfactory receptors becoming accustomed to a smell
phasic receptor
characteristics of a phasic receptor
response adapts rapidly after initial burst of activity
transmit signal to CNS when stimulus intensity changes
allows one to filter out background noise (signals)
ex. olfactory receptors, photoreceptors
receptor that deals with hearing and balance
mechanoreception
Metabotropic receptor
neurotransmitter will bind to this receptor which will intern send an intracellular 2nd messenger to the bind with the ion channel that will open and allow ions to flow in and out
Name an example of a metabotropic receptor
G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs)
intracellular second messengers can be...
receptors
transporters
ion channels
LTP
long term potentiation
changes in how the synapse respondes
LTP
long term potentiation
(how we have learning and memory)
What part of the brain is critical for short term and long term memory?
hippocampus!
plays central role in formation and retrieval of long term memory
hippocampus
how do we generate a larger postsynaptic response?
1. presynaptic terminal releases glutamate
2. glutamate binds to two types of glutamate receptors (AMPA & NMDA)
3. Calcium influx through NMDA receptors activates a number of pathways in the postsynaptic cell
Two Glutamate receptors
AMPA, NMDA
T/F
AMPA and NMDA are ligand gated channels
True
AMPA receptor allows which ions to go through the cell?
Na, K
(this will depolarize the cell!!!)
NMDA receptors allow which ions to go through the cell?
Na, K, and Ca
What allows NMDA receptors to activate (open)?
depolarization (through AMPA opening) and a glutamate binding to it
enhances presynaptic release of glutamate
retrograde release of nitric oxide (gaseous substance that just diffuses across the membrane)
Calcium influx through NMDA receptors activates a number of pathways in the postsynaptic cell.
List the 3 Dr. Gilbertson talked about
1. increases responsiveness of AMPA receptors (phosphorylation)
2. increase # of AMPA receptors available
3. leads to retrograde release of nitric oxide (which enhances presynaptic release of glutamate)
AKA----
AMPA receptors work better, there are more of them, and more glutamate will be released!
thus = a BIGGER EPSP
proprioception
the sensing of where our appendages are in 3 dimensional space
(being able to drive a car without looking at your feet)
job of sensory receptors
to transduce incoming stimuli into an electrical stimuli
difference between afferent and efferent neurons:
afferent-- going TO CNS
efferent-- going AWAY from CNS
functional categories of sensory receptors
somatosensory receptors
mechanosensitive receptors
chemoreceptors
electromagnetic receptors
nociceptors
you can smell someone's perfume. which sensory receptors are being used?
chemoreceptors
functional categories of sensory receptors
somatosensory
mechanosensitive
chemoreceptors
electromagnetic
nociceptors
receptors that sense taste, smell, osmoreceptors, carotid body
chemoreceptors
Which receptor responds to light?
electromagnetic receptors
responds to pain
nociceptors
responds to pressure, touch, gravity, sound
mechanosensitive receptors
explain how learning and memory are enhanced via LTP in the hippocampus- go!
-release of gluatmate
-AMPA, NMDA receptors
-AMPA opens first, depolarizes the cell
-NMDA allows Na, K, and Ca to go through
-Ca helps AMPA respond better, increases number of AMPA, and allows NO to diffuse into presynaptic cell
how do birds know when to travel west?
their electromagnetic receptors that sense the electromagnetic field of the earth
pain tends to have what type of receptor response?
tonic!
we don't want to "get used" to pain
proprioceptors have what type of receptor response?
tonic!
we constantly have to be aware of where are body is
photoreceptors and olfactory receptors have what type of receptor response?
phasic!
we get used to a smell or a light
what type of receptor response allows one to filter out background noise?
phasic receptors
what allows you to not notice the intensity of salt in your saliva?
phasic receptors!
sensory organ that contains ciliated receptor cells that respond to mechanical deformation
statocyst
particles within statocyst are called what and do what?
statoliths
move and settle to lowest point (due to gravity)
how do statoliths cause depolarization
distort membranes of ciliated receptor cells
what allows invertebrates to position themselves in space?
statocysts
loudness is measured in..
decibels (dB)
at what sustained decibel can it become detrimental to your hearing?
80 dB
the human ear has a pitch or frequency from what to what?
20-20,000 Hz
In what range of frequencies is the human ear most sensitive to?
1,000-3,000 (normal human conversation)
three bones of the inner ear
the ossicles
malleus, incus, stapes
Sound travels from tympanic membranes to...
malleus- incus - stapes - oval window
What causes the bending of the hair cells in the ear?
tectorial membrane
what type of channels may become activated in the hair cells?
mechanosensitive channels
when hair cells bend which way do they become excited (depolarized)?
to the right
aka. towards the longer stereocilia
some channels are open in a hair cell, what could this mean?
it is most likely at rest, neurotransmitters are passing through even when no sound is really being made. more channels will be open causing a change in the Vm when actual sound is produced
region where hair cells lie
ampulla
receptors for which tastes contain ion channels?
salts, acids
carbs are part of what taste system?
sweet taste system
salty taste system
minerals
umami taste system
amino acids (proteins)
roles of the taste system:
detect nutrients, avoid toxins
give bitter taste
toxins.
plant alkaloids, venoms, toxins, pharmaceuticals
taste system were not sure why we have
sour
but..
if something is sour we know it doesn't have its full nutritional value
receptors for which tastes contain g protein coupled receptors?
sweet, bitter, umami
in which type of neuron would opening a Cl- channel depolarize the cell?
olfactory receptor neurons
acts as an initial fixed lens in the vertebrate eye
cornea
hole in the center of the eye that allows light in
pupil
diameter of the hole in the center of the eye is determined by..
the iris
focuses the light onto back of the eye
lens
made up of cells involved in phototransduction
retina
liquid in the deeper part of the eye
vitreous humor
liquid in the initial part of the eye
aqueous humor
blind spot in your eye
optic disk
process by which the lens changes shape to keep image in focus
accommodation
what alters the shape of the lens?
ciliary muscles
loss of lens accommodation
presbyopia
farsightedness
hyperopia
(focal point falls behind the retina)
nearsightedness
myopia
(focal point falls in front of retina)
imperfectly shaped cornea
astigmatism
(generates 2 images)
name two examples of animals that have retina in "proper" orientation (unlike us)
squid, octopus
name 3 characteristics of a bird eye
1. avascular retina
2. high # of cones (color, acuity)
-humans: 150,000
-sparrows: 400,000
-hawks: 1,000,000
3. multiple fovea (they can focus on multiple places at once)
noctornal animals have what that allows them to see at night?
tapetum (reflective layer)
cells that are activated under low light conditions
rods
cells concentrated in fovea
cones
Cone characteristics:
lower sensitivity; day vision
less photopigment
lower amplification
high temporal integration
more sensitive to direct axial rays
Rod characteristics;
high sensitivity to light;night vision
more numerous
more photopigment; captures more light
high amplification
low temporal resolution
more sensitive to scattered light
what cells contain rhodopsin
rods
what cells have three different photopigments
cones
absorption of light changes the conformation of..
retinal
retinal + opsin =
rhodopsin
muscles are attached to bones in
antagonistic pairs
in the dark, cGMP concentration is..
HIGH
In the dark, is rhodopsin inactive or active?
inactive
thin filaments of actin
I- bands
thick myosin filaments overlapping with actin
A bands
thick myosin filaments only
H zone
made of proteins that attach to actin, defines the basic unit of a contraction, the sarcomere
Z line
attachment site for thick filaments
M line
in contraction, the Z line to Z line would..
shorten
as the sarcomere shortens,
the I bands...
the H zone...
the A band...
shortens,
is reduced,
is unchanged
When ATP is bound to myosin head, its in what state?
low energy state
contraction of an individual muscle fiber (cell) is what kind of event?
all-or-none event
"twitch"
contraction of a whole muscle is what kind of event?
a graded event
determined by number of muscle fibers contracting and rate of contraction (frequency of action potentials)
graded responses occurs because of..
summation
if contraction of muscles becomes sustained with out any relaxations, this is called..
tetanus
what allows you to stand on your job for 4 hrs (why don't your muscles fatigue)?
asynchronous recruitment
(some muscle fibers are contracting while others are relaxing)
2 primary lymphoid tissues
thymus gland and bone marrow
secondary lymphoid tissues
spleen, lymph nodes
traps and removes aging or damaged red blood cells by phagocytosis
spleen
has immune cells to assist in trapping foreign invaders
spleen
associated with vessels of lymphatic system
lymph nodes
net flow from capillaries into interstitial fluid, this fluid is picked up by lymph vessels
lymph nodes
contains clusters of macrophages to trap pathogens
lymph nodes
disease-causing agent
pathogen
bacteria, viruses, fungi, one-celled protozoans are all an example of what when ingested in the body?
microbes
What is an example of some larger pathogens?
tapeworms, hookworms, other multicellular parasites
molecules or cells not of the body potentially can elicit an immune response (pollens, chemicals, foreign bodies, being "allergic")
foreign substances
immune system functions:
protection from pathogens
removal of dead of damaged tissues
recognition and removal of abnormal cells
circulate through the extracellular compartment looking for damaged or dying cells to engulf or digest
scavenger cells
why do people with AIDS contract a lot of cancers
their immune system isnt working, therefore recognition and removal of abnormal cells is not happening!
immune system's mechanism for distinguishing "self" from "non-self" fails
autoimmune disease
examples of autoimmune diseases
diabetes mellitus, rhematoid arthritis
two types of defense against pathogens
innate immunity
acquired immunity
present before pathogenic invasion; effective before birth; non-specific
innate immunity
responds after exposure to pathogen; very specific to the pathogen
acquired immunity
skin, mucous membranes, and secretions are examples of
barrier defenses within our innate immunity system
internal defenses within our innate immunity system. name all 5
phagocytic cells, antimicrobial proteins, inflammatory response, natural killer cells are all an example of
antibodies defend against infection in body fluids (example of..)
humoral response within acquired immunity
cytotoxic lymphocytes defend against infection in body cells is an example of..
cell-mediated response within acquired immunity
t/f it takes a short amount of time for the acquired immunity to respond
false. it can takes days or weeks, but its vERY specific
what are the primary phagocytic cells
macrophages and neutrophils
primary scavengers of the tissues
macrophages
compound that activates immune response
antigen
is an antigen-presenting cell, ingest molecular and cellular antigen and express parts on their cell surface
macrophages
most abundant of the white blood cells
neutrophils
phagocytic, ingesting 5-20 bacteria during their 1-2 day lifespan
neutrophils
release a number of cytokines, including pyrogens and those involved in the inflammatory response
neutrophils
what fuses with the vacoule containing microbes in the phagocytosis?
lysosome
fever production is an example of what kind of defense?
internal innate defense
fever-producing cytokine
pyrogens
why would you want to allow a fever to prolong?
fevers increase activity of white blood cells in the immune response
directly attack pathogens or interfere with their reproduction
antimicrobial proteins
digests cell walls of bacteria
lysozyme
increase of temperature, attraction of white blood cells and swelling associated with tissue injury or pathogenic infection
inflammatory response
released from mast cells and basophils
histamine
what does histamine do?
increase white blood cells to injury site
opens pores in capillaries
dilate blood vessels, increase blood flow to the region
concentrated under the mucus membranes in airways and the digestive tract
mast cells
prevents mast cell degranulation or block histamine receptor
antihistamines
inhalation of antigens can trigger what?
histamine release
molecules released from one cell that effect the growth or activity of another cell
cytokines
attack virus-infected and cancerous cells by recognizing certain protein signatures on these cells and triggering apoptosis (cell death)
natural killer cells
natural killer cells release two proteins:
perforins and granzymes
two proteins that trigger cell death
perforins and granzymes
form pores in infected/cancerous cells
perforins
have membrane receptors that react to specific types of pathogens
lymphocytes
formed in the bone marrow, produce primary and secondary antibody responses, purpose is to secrete antibodies
B lymphocytes (B cells)
contraction of relaxation of what muscles alters the shape of the lens?
ciliary muscles
will the lens of your eye be more or less round to see an object close up?
more round!
molluscs don't suffer from things like hyperopia and myopia, why?
they don't have muscles that are changing their lens, they have something that goes back and forth---get the details on this!
what are the photoreceptors?
rods and cones
where would you find the most densely packed coned region in the eye?
the fovea
rhodopsin is found where?
in the rods
how many photopigments do rods have?
1- just rhodopsin
which is why they don't detect color-- everything comes in just 1 tone
how many photopigments do cones have?
3
how does one become colorblind?
a defect in their cones!
absorption of light changes the confirmation of______, which then alters the shape of_____
retinal; opsin
the G protein in the rods are called..
transducin
cGMP levels are _______ in the dark
HIGH
rhodopsin is found where in the rods?
in the transducin (G protein)
when cGMP levels are high in the rods, what can flow into the cell?
Calcium! and Sodium! (Ca, Na) which will majorly depolarize the cell!
the influx of cation into the rods is referred to as
the dark current
when retinal absorbs light and unbinds from opsin this is called..
bleaching
what activates the G protein (transducin)?
activated opsin
what activates phosphodiesterase?
activated transducin (G protein)
when transducin is activated and phosphodiesterase is activated what happens to cGMP?
it decreases, causing the Na+ channels to close, causing the cell to hyperpolarize
as the rods begin to hyperpolarize what will eventually happen?
the neurotransmitter release decreases
fluid held under pressure in a closed environment
hydrostatic
cnidarians, annelids, and nematodes all have which type of skeleton?
hydrostatic skeleton
how does a hydrostatic skeleton animal move?
changes shape of fluid-filled compartments with muscle/contractile cells
hard covering of the body surface including shells or cuticles that attach to underlying muscles
exoskeleton
hard, supporting structures (ie. bones) encased in the soft tissues of animals
endoskeleton
what type of skeleton do sponges have?
endoskeleton
sponges have what that are hard, inorganic material
spicules (like our bones)
echinoderms contain what that makes them considered an endoskeleton?
ossicles- containing calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate bound with proteins
endoskeleton of calcified bones or cartilage often joined by ligaments or to muscles by tendons
chordates (like us for example!)
shortens the muscle, placing force on the tendon, pulling the more movable bone inward
contraction
which is the insertion and which is the origin when classifying two bones
insertion= the one moving
origin=the more stable bone
what is unique about a muscle fiber (cell)
its multinucleated (because its a product of some fused cells)
and its HUGE
thick filaments
myosin
thin filaments
actin
long coiled tail and globular head,
globular head had ATPase activity
myosin
how many myosin molecules make up one thick filament?
250 myosin molecules
globular, units form helical structure F-actin
G- actin
rod shaped, closely associated with actin
tropomyosin
3 protein complex that helps form a barrier to formation of cross-bridges between actin and myosin (at rest)
troponin
transducin activates phosphodiesterase, what does phosphodiesterase do?
breaks down cGMP
light causes what
hyperpolarization and a decrease in neurotransmitter release
when myosin head is bound to ATP it is in a low energy state and at what angle?
45 degree
When the myosin head has hydrolyzed ATP-- ADP + Pi, it is in a high energy state and what angle?
90 degree
What hydrolyzes ATP?
ATPase
After the myosin head has formed a cross bridge with the actin, it cannot go back to its low energy state until what?
ADP + Pi is released from the myosin head
After the ADP + Pi have been released from the myosin head, the myosin head is still attached to the actin. What allows it to detach?
A new ATP binding to the myosin head allows it to unattach from the actin
At rest, what blocks the myosin binding site?
tropomyosin
calcium in the myofibril will bind to what?
troponin C
When talking about muscle cells, action potentials in neurons lead to the release of what neurotransmitter?
acetylcholine
t/f one motor neuron can innervate multiple muscle fibers.
true
all of the individual muscle fibers that are driven by a single motor neuron is called what?
a motor unit
pyrogens, released from the neutrophils, go to where?
hypothalamus!-- sets body temperature higher!
Why would the body want to induce a fever?
increase activity of white blood cells in the immune response (everything works better at higher temperature right!)
these antimicrobial proteins are activated by pathogens to eventually lyse microbes or activate acquired immune responses
complement proteins
antimicrobial protein produced by virus-infected cells that activate other defenses related to inhibition of viral reproduction
interferons {alpha or beta} (interfering with a virus having a good time!)
antimicrobial proteins secreted by lymphocytes that leads to macrophage activation
interferon (y)
antimicrobial protein secreted by macrophages - damage pathogens, leading to their destruction
defensins
all osmoconformers are what kind of animals?
marine animals!
they all live in seawater!
t/f euryhaline animals can be osmoconformers or osmoregulators
true
the champion of osmoregulators, spends 30% of its energy to osmoregulate
salt lake brine fish!
lives in a HIgHLy hyperosmotic environment
goldfish are a good example of what type of osmoregulator?
stenohaline
the champion of euryhaline organisms?
tilapia-- which means they can withstand a large amount of change in their osmolarity environment
most invertebrate marine animals are osmoconformers or osmoregulators?
osmoconformers
most marine vertebrates and some marine invertebrates are.. osmo--?
osmoregulators!
most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers, however, what is a common problem they have?
their solutes concentrations do not match!
Which marine animal is unlike most in that their tissues are HYPERosmotic to their environment?
the shark!
What do sharks maintain high concentrations of to keep their tissues hyperosmolar to their environment?
urea + TMAO
How do euryhaline fish do it?!
they osmoregulate like marine fish in salt water environments, and like freshwater fish in freshwater! brilliant!
what is it called when organisms can survive when the water they're living in dries up!
anhydrobiosis
name some organisms that exhibit anhydrosis..
nematodes, rotifers, tardigrades
true or false. tardigrades can live in absolute freezing temperatures and also extreme heat.
true
name ways land animals have evolved to prevent water loss:
keratinized skin, shells, insect exoskeleton, nocturnal behavior
despite how hard we try, land animals still have water loss. what are some ways?
perspiration, gas exchange (moist surfaces!), excretion (urine, feces)
where does the kangaroo rat derive most of its water?
metabolism!
what forces water and solutes into the excretory tubule?
blood pressure
solutes move selectively across what to the blood or lumen?
transporting epithelium
flatworms contain what structures to perform osmoregulation?
protonephridia
annelids (earthworms) have what structure to perform osmoregulation?
metanephridium
in vertebrates, what structure helps to osmoregulate?
kidneys
what structures do insects and terrestrial arthropods have that perform osmoregulation?
malpighian tubules
t/f kidneys use about 25% of our cardiac output
true
what enables mammals to produce urine that is hyperosmotic to the body fluids?
juxtamedullary nephrons
what is the only thing that can leave/enter the descending limb of the loop of henle?
water!
the ascending limb of the loop of henle is more permeable to what? and less permeable to what?
more permeable to solutes, less permeable to water
how does the osmolarity of the filtrate in the ascending loop of henle decrease?
NaCl is actively transported out!
what plays a key role in salt and potassium concentrations in the body fluids as well as pH?
the distal tubule of the nephron
if there is a high water permeability in your collecting duct, what will your urine be like?
very dilute, because a lot of water is being retained
what causes the juxtaglomerular apparatus to release renin?
when blood pressure drops or blood volume drops (from blood loss or reduced intake of salt)
what releases angiotensinogen?
liver
how does angiotensin 2 raise blood pressure?
constricting arterioles and influencing the adrenal gland to secrete aldosterone
what does angiotensin 2 stimulate adrenal glands to do?
release a hormone called aldosterone
what makes the distal tubules reabsorb more sodium and water?
aldosterone
what does aldosterone do? who secretes it?
aldosterone acts on the distal tubule on the nephron by making it reabsorb more sodium and water. it is originally secreted by the adrenal gland
what senses fluid flow in the kidneys?
macula densa
what does atrial naturietic factor do?
inhibits sodium absorbtion from distal tubules and inhibits release of renin from juxtaglomerular cells
What performs basically the opposite of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system?
the atrial-naturietic-factor
how is it possible to have a concentrated urine of 300 mOsm or above??
the interstitial fluid of the renal medulla has a HIGH osmolarity! Hyperosmotic!
What would be a stimulus that would influence the heart to secrete ANF (atrial natriuretic factor)?
HIGH blood pressue-- it will do the opposite of the RAAS system. It will inhibit juxtaglomerular cells from secreting renin and inhibit the distal tubules from absorbing sodium!
a mammal living in a water environment and trying to release as much water as possible might have what adaptation in their kidneys?
short loop of henle-- thus little control over concentrating urine
common opening for the digestive tract, urinary, and reproductive tracts in animals like iguanas
cloaca
birds constantly fight water loss but they don't have as developed loops of henle, what is their solution?
they excrete uric acid as a paste with little water
animals like iguanas fight water loss constantly, they only have cortical nephrons so their urine is isoosmotic. What is their solution?
they have a cloaca which helps reabsorb water in the urine/feces, and excretes uric acid
What adaptations have freshwater fish made in their kidneys to keep their tissues at the right osmolarity?
have HIGH number of nephrons=LARGE volume of filtrate (so they can urinate a lot!)
can reabsorb salts in distal tubule
What adaptations have animals like frogs made to maintain their tissue osmolarity?
in water: kidney adaptations like fish; use active transport to transport salts from water across their skin
on land: conserve water by reabsorbing it across epithelium in their bladder; adjust rate of filtration
marine water fish struggle to keep water IN their bodies, what adaptations have their kidneys made?
have smaller, fewer nephrons.
no distal tubule.
small glomeruli.
low filtration rate.
small amount of urine!
What is the main job of the kidneys in marine water fish?
to get rid of Mg, Ca, and So4 ions in sea water! these are secreted in the proximal tubule and excreted from there
You would not want to take an antihistamine while you have an infection (or just sick) why?
because antihistamines block the release of histamine from mast cells which help in fighting against antigens
What is diapedesis
increase capillary permeability
what are enzymes that destroy proteins called? and what particular ones do natural killer cells secrete?
proteases; granzymes
Acquired immunity is primarily mediated by what?
lymphocytes
What do lymphocytes have the ability to do specifically?
recognize specific antigens
What is an epitope?
the portion of the antigen where the lymphocyte binds
What is the primary purpose of the B lymphocytes?
to secrete antibodies
Mature B cells or B lymphocytes have what on their surface?
antibodies for a specific antigen
How are T lymphocytes or T cells derived?
they've migrated to the Thymus gland from bone marrow
What do T lymphocytes participate in?
cell-mediated immunity
Which type of lymphocyte recognizes intact antigens?
B cells
example of passive immunity
mother to fetus; immuglobulin shot; snake venom
What type of cell does the HIV/AIDS virus selectively attack?
the helper T cells!