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166 Cards in this Set

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Diastole
relaxation period in the heart
Systole
period of active contraction
blood pressure =
systolic pressure/diastolic pressure
BIG #/ smaller #
cardiac output=
heart rate X stroke volume
the SA node
(sinoatrial node) controls..
has the fastest rhythm
sets the rhythm of the heart
pacemaker cells
have their own intrinsic rhythm
STUDY this more!
(depolarization.. etc)
P Wave
depolarization of atria
QRS Complex
depolarization of the ventricles
T wave
repolarization of ventricles
stroke volume
?
blood pressure=
cardiac output *total peripheral resistance
total peripheral resistance
determined by ateriole diameter
blood pressure is greatest in the arteries during..
ventricular systole
(systolic pressure)
during diastole is there still pressure?
yes.
the arteries have saved up, therefore there is some positive flow
(diastolic pressure)
contraction of skeletal muscle forces blood back toward the heart
skeletal muscle pump
(aided by series of one-way valves)
when we inhale, pressure changes in thoracic cavity and favors blood flow to heart
respiratory pump
** look for this on youtube
ring of smooth muscle that closes an opening into the capillaries
precapillary sphincters
if precapillary sphincters are NOT contracted, blood will..
flow through the capillary beds
if precapillary sphincters ARE contracted, blood will...
NOT flow to capillary beds and goes directly to venous side
large vessel that leads from arteriole side to venule side
metarteriole (thoroughfare channel)
an INCREASE in WHAT would lead to an INCREASE in BLOOD PRESSURE?
heart rate
stroke volume
increasing the DIAMETER of arterioles will..
DECREASE blood pressure
how do materials cross the capillary
diffusion
coupled endocytosis/exocytosis
difussion through intercellular junctions
specific transport proteins
pressure produced by a solution in a space divided by a semipermeable membrane due to a difference in the concentrations of solute
osmotic pressure
more solutes=
greater osmotic pressure
which changes more?
blood pressure or osmotic pressure?
Blood pressure
LDL
BAD cholesterol
HDL
GOOD cholesterol
"hardening of the arteries"
atherosclerosis
blood clot in the coronary arteries
heart attack
(myocardial infarction)
blod clot in blood vessels leading to the brain
stroke
hypertension
high blood pressure
prolonged hypertension promotes atherosclerosis
pressure is stored in the...
arterial walls
pressure in the arterial walls keeps..
blood flowing!
the return of blood to the heart is aided by
skeletal muscle pump
respiratory pump
how material crosses the capillary wall
diffusion
endo/exocytosis
thru cell-cell junctions
transport
bulk flow
bulk flow is driven by
blood pressure/osmotic pressure
If blood pressure is greater than osmotic pressure=
flow out of the capillaries--- to the arterial end
When Osmotic pressure is greater than blood pressure
flows INTO the capillaries -- to the venous end
atherosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
atherosclerosis can lead to..
a heart attack
hypertension
high blood pressure
hypertension can lead to...
atherosclerosis
four integrated processes in respiration...
1. Ventilation {exchange of air between atmosphere + lungs}
2. Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs + blood
3. Transport of oxygen + carbon dioxide in the blood
4. Exchange of gases between blood and cells
gases move by..
diffusion
Fick's Law of Diffusion.
Draw It
picture.
respiratory surfaces tend to be..
LARGE + THIN to maximize gas exchange
entire surface of the body is part of the respiratory surface..
unicellular organisms, sponges, flatworms
entire skin surface ("skin breathers")
earth worms, subset of amphibians
less energy is required to move ______ than _____
air , water
gasses must diffusion through______to be able to cross a _____________
water, membrane
spiracle
openings in body surfaces
surfactant
reduced the surface tension of water
the respiratory system has special adaptations. these include...
surfaces tend to be large
surfaces tend to be thin
they do NOT tend to be warmer + moister
ventilation
breathing
(inspiration, expiration)
air movement depends upon..
pressure gradients (high to low)
boyle's law
p1v1=p2v2
positive pressure breathing
ex. frogs
go over the slide
negative pressure breathing
ex. mammals
study the slides
diaphragm contracts
inhalation
diaphragm relaxes
exhalation
residual volume
the "old air" that remains in the lungs via the alveoli (which cannot collapse completely with each breath)
the problem with residual volume
the old air mixes with the new air (and greater concentration of oxygen) and greatly lowers the concentration of oxygen of the new air
a skin surface breather must be..
moist!
{must live in water}?
disadvantage to having a trachael system for breathing
must keep membranes moist!
site of gas exchange in mammals
alveoli
where gas exchange occurs in birds
parabronchia
pacemaker cells in the ______ drive the ventilation rhythm
medulla oblongata
control center in the ____ makes the breathing rhythm smooth
pons
the primary stimulus that controls the rate of breathing is..
the level of CO2 in the CSF measured by pH sensors in the medulla
a pH sensor exists in the medulla measuring CO2 in CSF, where else are there sensors?
carotid body
aortic body
increase inventilation occurs when..
concentration of Oxygen is LOW
a low pH value
a high P CO2
understand the difference of the concentrations of gases in dry air versus humid air
and understand the difference of concentrations of Oxygen + CO2 throughout the circulatory system
animals transport oxygen to their tissues using..
respiratory pigments
the molecule in blood that helps transport oxygen
hemoglobin
hemoglobin binds to what more efficiently than it does to oxygen?
CO {carbon monoxide}
oxygen binds to what in hemoglobin?
polypeptides
{4 per unit}
understand implications of oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
go over the slide!
at a resting cell about how many protein binding sites are being used?
3 of 4
under what percent oxygen does the curve become very steep and unhealthy to live in
60%
under what percent oxygen does the curve become very steep and unhealthy to live in
60%
shift to the RIGHT on curve
increase releases of Oxygen
shift to the RIGHT on curve
increase releases of Oxygen
shift to the LEFT on curve
decrease release of Oxygen
shift to the LEFT on curve
decrease release of Oxygen
Traits of a living organism
GRADE MARRC
Growth
Responsiveness
Absorption
Digestion
Excretion
Movement
Assimilation
Reproduction
Respiration
Circulation
Bulk feeder
Us, snakes, most organisms
consumes large amounts at a time
suspension feeder
ex. whales eating microorganisms
substrate feeder
nutrients absorbed through skin
fluid feeder
consumes only fluid
ex. aphid, hummingbird, mosquito
protein deficiency can lead to what disease?
(malnutrition)
kwashiorkor:
where water floods tissues
inadequate calories can lead to what disease?
(undernourished)
marasmus:
body shuts down less essential pathways to reserve energy to keep individual alive
essential fatty acids are important for:
membrane structure/function; vision, brain function, gene expression, cell signaling
opportunistic feeder
main diet is unavailable so you eat something outside of normal diet to survive
a deficiency in essential fatty acids can lead to
decreased growth, dry skin, and lesser wound healing
difference between saturated vs. unsaturated
find this out!!!
FAT soluble vitamins {organic}
K A D E
hormone that tells you your hungry!
comes from where and what is it called?
ghrelin! comes from the stomach and produces hunger pains
thrifty gene hypothesis
people that survived were the ones who could store more calories and not use them as fat
inorganic elements required by living organisms
minerals
macro-minerals assist in..
cell signaling
trtrace minerals assist in being
co-factors for vitamins
essential amino acid children need
histidine
another sometimes essential amino acid for children
arginine
** Remember the new food pyramid **
*eat a variety of foods
*eat some of each color every day
*eat less of some foods, more of others
*steps on the side represent importance of exercise
organic compounds required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism
vitamins
in insects, birds; storage area that is used to help break down plant materials
(mammals have a rudimentary cecum)
gastric ceca
contains hard material to help breakdown food mechanically
gizzard
specific hungers
overcoming a deficiency
body innately going to a the source of needed nutrients
a storage site in extracellular digestion
crop
phagocytosis + pinocytosis
intracellular digestion
folds to increase surface area in intestine to absorb nutrients
typhosole
parietal cells secrete..
HCl
mucus cells secrete..
mucus to protect stomach lining
chief cells secrete...
pepsinogen
gastric ulcers occur when...
protective mucus layer is destroyed allowing gastric juice to attack the stomach
contributing agents to ulcers..
anti-inflammatory meds (asprin + ibuprofen)
stress
nicotine
caffeine
alcohol
Positive Feedback of Pepsinogen....
pepsinogen released by chief cells
pepsinogen activated by HCl, becoming Pepsin
Pepsin converts more pepsinogen to pepsin
mixture of broken food + stomach acid
acid chyme
most common cause of ulcers....
helicobacter pylori
--eats up mucus in stomach thus leaving exposed areas in such a low pH causing sores
where majority of nutrient absorption occurs
duodenum
What happens in the jejunum?
Water absorption and whatever the duodenum missed
What happens in the Ileum?
absorbs vit B 12
bile salts
whatever the jejunum missed
increases surface are to absorb more nutrients
villi
more foldings on the epithelial cells
microvilli
the colon does what?
absorbs water!
diarrhea is caused by?
not enough water being taken up in the colon
ex. good bacteria have been killed
constipation
too much water being taken up in colon
stores feces
rectum
expels feces
anus
one voluntary and one involuntary sphincter between rectum + anus
storage house for good bacteria and function in immune responses
appendix
Carbs start to break down where?
mouth.. and all the way to the end
Protein start to break down where?
stomach! and all the way to the end
Nucleic acids start to break down where?
small intestine all the way to the end
Where is fat broken down?
only in the sm intestine
chylomicrons leave the cell by exocytosis and enter the lymphatic system by
lacteals
chylomicrons (once what was fat) entered the lymphatic system by lacteals and then goes..?
either to the muscles for energy or stored in adipose cells
secretes bile salts that emulsify fat
liver
secretes bicarbonate buffer, hydrolytic enzymes
pancreas
releases bile that was received from liver
gall bladder
4 chambered stomach of cow:
rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum
where initial bolus of food is stored and initial breakdown begins (in cows)
rumen
here and in the rumen prokayotes & protists begin the process of breaking down the cellulose and release fatty acids as a by product (cow stomach)
reticulum
after regurgitating & rechewing the cud, it is reswallowed and moves here; much of the water is removed
omasum
the cud, loaded with microorganisms, passes to the______ for final digestion by the cow's enzymes
abomasum
3 things in common with open & closed circulatory systems
1. pump-- creates pressure
2. circulatory fluid
3. vessels
baths the tissues
hemolymph
one way valves
ostia
老师 [ lǎoshī ]
1.[명사] 선생님. 스승.
2.[명사] 기예나 기능을 가진 사람에 대한 존칭.
valves fail to open fully
(think stiff)
stenosis
regurgitation
valves in the heart are leaky
one cardiac cycle takes about how long?
.8 seconds
cardiac output=
heart rate * stroke volume
sets heartbeat
SA (sinoatrial) node
depolarization=
activation!
Repolarization=
relaxing
blood pressure
cardiac output * total peripheral resistance
how tough it is for blood to flow through
total peripheral resistance
diagnostic tool for blood pressure
sphygmomanometry
precapillary sphincters are on..
arteriole side!
Fick's Law of Diffusion:
just think
CAT divided by (square root) of M*D
oxygen and carbon dioxide must first..
be dissolved in water to be utilized!
When Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve shifts to the right this means:
more oxygen is release per polypeptide (less oxygen binding in the hemoglobin)
What will cause the Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to shift right?
*increased temperature
*decrease in pH (more acidic)
*increased P(CO2)
*when we exercise
3 things that act as a stimulant to breathe!
high acidity
high CO2 concentration
low O2 concentration
What will cause the Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to shift left?
*temperature decrease
*higher pH (more basic)