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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Your ability to extend your leg begins with

A. the contraction of ligaments and tendons
B. the contraction of a muscle
C. the lengthening of a muscle
D. a combination of push and pull by antagonistic muscle pairs
Another name for a muscle "fiber" is a

A. myofibril
B. sarcomere
C. muscle cell
D. contractile filament
Which of the following events does NOT happen during muscle contraction?

A. The myofibrils shorten
B. The muscle fibers become much thinner
C. The actin and myosin filaments slide over each other
D. The filaments move toward the middle of the sarcomere during contraction and away on relaxation
Which of the following conditions would most likely happen as a result of rigorous muscular exercise?

A. Oxygen debt
B. ATP accumulation
C. Actin depletion
D. Glycogen buildup
Which of the following elements is most specifically associated with muscle contraction?

A. Phosphorus
B. Potassium
C. Calcium
D. Sodium
Muscles fatigue, or developing an oxygen debt, results most directly from

A. a loss of available ATP and accumulation of lactic acid
B. failure of calcium channels to stay open after prolonged use
C. buildup of stored ATP and an oversupply of oxygen
D. too much carbohydrate in the system
Which of the following is NOT a physiological consequence of chewing?

A. Physical breakdown of the food
B. Increase the surface area of the food substance
C. Mixing of enzymes with the food in the mouth
D. Absorption of nutrients by the lining of the mouth
Food is passed down the esophagus into the stomach by
A. peristalsis
B. glycolysis
C. plasmolysis
D. emulsion propulsion
The "layer" that lies next to the lumen of the intestinal tract is

A. longitudinal muscles
B. submucosa
C. mucosa
D. circular muscle layers
According to the Surgeon General, we should reduce all but one of the following from our diet. Which should we NOT reduce?

A. Saturated fat
B. Complex carbohydrates
C. Salt
D. Cholesterol
Where in the digestive system does the greatest amount of nutrient absorption take place?

A. Stomach
B. Small intestine
C. Colon
D. Esophagus
The tiny projections from the mucosal wall that function in increasing the surface area for absorption of nutrients are called

A. submucosa
B. mucins
C. microvilli
D. villi
Which of the following organs is responsible for detoxifying various organic compounds?

A. Liver
B. Small intestine
C. Gallbladder
D. Spleen
People who are obese run a greater risk of

A. diabetes
B. high blood pressure
C. atherosclerosis
D. all of the above
The amino acids isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine are called "essential" amino acids. This means that they

A. are needed in larger amounts by the body than other amino acids
B. are not naturally produced in the body
C. are found in all of the food that we eat
D. are most easily converted into other polypeptide chains in each cell
Which of the following events can NOT occur in the blood?
A. Digestion of nutrient material
B. Joining of oxygen and hemoglobin
C. Transport of phagocytic cells
D. Stabilization of pH
The term "blood doping" refers to

A. the fact that there is a correlation between IQ and number of blood cells
B. the practice of injecting the blood of a good athlete into your body before vigorous excercise
C. reinjecting an athletes own blood into their body shortly before an athletic event
D. the procedure of clinically figuring out a persons blood type and Rh factor
In order for a child to encounter an Rh factor problem before birth, the mother

A. must be positive and her first and second child positive
B. must be negative and her first and second child positive
C. must be negative and her first and second child negative
D. must be positive and her first and second child negative
The function of the pulmonary artery is to carry blood away from the ___________

A. aorta
B. right atrium of the heart
C. right ventricle of the heart
D. left ventricle of the heart
In which of the following structures would you expect to find the highest blood pressure?

A. Right ventricle
B. Right atrium
C. Left ventricle
D. Left atrium
Which of the following is the best description of the condition "atherosclerosis"?

A. The abnormal removal of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels
B. The arterial walls fill with dense cartilage tissue
C. The red blood cells develop nuclei and become phagocytic
D. Lipids in the bloodstream become embedded in the walls of the endothelial lining
All of the following but one can be classified as a pathogen. Which is the exception?

A. Virus
B. Bacterium
C. Fugus
D. Cancer
An "inflammation" is characterized by the

A. progression of symptoms to a cancerous state
B. release of histamines, which cause capillaries to become "leaky"
C. build up of dead cells and bacteria
D. need to use antihistamine drugs for treatment
The difference between "active" and "passive" immunity is that with passive immunity
A. a vaccine is injected into the body and the body responds by developing antibodies
B. a person would be immune from the disease simply by coming in contact with someone who is naturally immune
C. one would receive antibodies by injection or from the mother at birth
D. would develop by actually surviving the disease
Which of the following statements is FALSE?

A. Current prevention of the spread of HIV depends upon implementing behavioral controls through education
B. There is evidence that antibodies do not work in neutralizing the HIV virus
C. It will be very difficult to produce a vaccine against all of the mutated forms of HIV
D. In addition to transmission by blood, semen, and breast milk, the HIV virus can be given to someone else through contact with saliva, tears and urine
Which of the following events accounts for the movement of both oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body?

A. Diffusion
B. Bulk flow
C. Osmosis
D. Exocytosis and endocytosis
The oxyhemoglobin in the blood will give up, or release, oxygen when__________

A. the body temperatures falls below normal levels
B. carbon dioxide concentrations are high
C. pH values are high
D. the concentration of carbon dioxide is low
The part, or basic subunit, of the kidney that is responsible for purifying the blood and restoring solute and water balance is the

A. cortex
B. medulla
C. nephron
D. ureter
In which section of the human nephron does filtration occur?

A. Loop of Henle
B. Glomerulus
C. Proximal tubules
D. Distal tubules
Which of the following systems does NOT directly release a type of bodily waste into the environment?

A. The digestive system
B. The urinary system
C. The respiratory system
D. The circulatory system