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24 Cards in this Set

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3:5 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. What are the similarities and differences between these two types of cells? Give two examples of each type of cell.
Prokaryotic –
bacteria – unicellular and colonial
archaea – have no nucleus, have one circular chromosome, evolutionarily closer to eukaryotes.
Eukaryotic –
¨Protists – Unicellular and multicellular. They are the simplest of eukaryotic but larger and more complex than prokaryotes.
¨Fungi – haploid and binucleate cells, multicellular, heterotrophic.
decomposers, parasites, or pathogens
secrete enzymes that digest food outside their body then absorb the bits – without decomposers, communities would become buried in their own wastes.
¨Plants – Haplo-diploid life cycles, and autotrophic, retaining embryo within female sex organ on parent plant. Photosynthetic, multicelled
Plants are the primary producers for ecosystems on land
They make all their own food by using sunlight as an energy source, and atoms of carbon dioxide and water as building blocks.
¨Animals – Multi-cellular animals, without cell walls
ingest tissues or juices of other organisms.
Grow and develop through a series of stages
Actively move about during at least part of their life.
3:1 Describe four organelles or structures that all eukaryotic cells have in common. In addition, describe two eukaryotic cell features that would be found only in photosynthetic cells.
Four organelles all cells have: Nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and lysosomes.
Photosnthetic cells: chloroplasts and cell walls.
Nucleus
keeps DNA and its transcripton into RNA away from damaging reactions in cytoplasm.
Mitochondria
energy powerhouse; produces many ATP by aerobic respiration.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Rough ER – modifies new polypeptide chains; synthesizes lipids.
Smooth ER – makes lipids, degrades fats, inactivates toxins.
Lysosomes
digests, recycles material
Chloroplasts
photosynthesis (capture sunlight energy and use it first in the formation of ATP, and NADPH.
Cell Walls
protects, structurally supports cell
Application for 3:1 organelles
we need to understand them so we can make sure that they are functioning properly in the human body.
Malfunction - lipids in the liver could relate the problem to the golgi bodies. May not be sorting or packaging them correctly.
We would have problems diagnosing patients.
3:3 Discuss the relationship between the size of a cell and its internal volume. In describing why all cells are not big, tell what happens as cells do start to grow bigger and how some larger cells solve this surface area to volume problem.
Surface area to volume ratio requires that cells be small.
¨As cells get larger in volume, relative surface area actually decreases.
¨Limits how large actively metabolizing cells can become
¨Cells needing greater surface area use modifications such as folding, microvilli, etc.
Describe two adaptations that some larger cells have that essentially, solves the surface area to volume problem.
folding – makes cell long and thin, or having outfoldings that increase surface area relative to volume.

microvilli - The microvilli are structures that increase the surface area of cells by approximately 600 fold (human), thus facilitating absorption and secretion.
3:6 What are the different organelles associated with the endomembrane system?
What is the function of each of the organelles? How do they work together to maintain an entire cell?
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)- Rough ER – modifies new polypeptide chains; synthesizes lipids.
Smooth ER – makes lipids, degrades fats, inactivates toxins.
Golgi Bodies - modifies, sorts, ships proteins and lipids for export or for insertion into cell membranes
Lysosomes - digests, recycles material.
3:2 Describe the endosymbiont theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells.
The theory proposes that chloroplasts and mitochondria evolved from certain types of bacteria that prokaryotic cells engulfed through endophagocytosis. These cells and the bacteria trapped inside them entered a symbiotic relationship, a close association between different types of organisms over an extended time.
endosymbiotic
meaning that one of the organisms (the bacteria) lived within the other (the prokaryotic cells).
3:5 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. What are the similarities and differences between these two types of cells? Give two examples of each type of cell.
Prokaryotic –
bacteria – unicellular and colonial
archaea – have no nucleus, have one circular chromosome, evolutionarily closer to eukaryotes.
Eukaryotic –
¨Protists – Unicellular and multicellular. They are the simplest of eukaryotic but larger and more complex than prokaryotes.
¨Fungi – haploid and binucleate cells, multicellular, heterotrophic.
decomposers, parasites, or pathogens
secrete enzymes that digest food outside their body then absorb the bits – without decomposers, communities would become buried in their own wastes.
¨Plants – Haplo-diploid life cycles, and autotrophic, retaining embryo within female sex organ on parent plant. Photosynthetic, multicelled
Plants are the primary producers for ecosystems on land
They make all their own food by using sunlight as an energy source, and atoms of carbon dioxide and water as building blocks.
¨Animals – Multi-cellular animals, without cell walls
ingest tissues or juices of other organisms.
Grow and develop through a series of stages
Actively move about during at least part of their life.
3:1 Describe four organelles or structures that all eukaryotic cells have in common. In addition, describe two eukaryotic cell features that would be found only in photosynthetic cells.
Four organelles all cells have: Nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and lysosomes.
Photosnthetic cells: chloroplasts and cell walls.
Nucleus
keeps DNA and its transcripton into RNA away from damaging reactions in cytoplasm.
Mitochondria
energy powerhouse; produces many ATP by aerobic respiration.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Rough ER – modifies new polypeptide chains; synthesizes lipids.
Smooth ER – makes lipids, degrades fats, inactivates toxins.
Lysosomes
digests, recycles material
Chloroplasts
photosynthesis (capture sunlight energy and use it first in the formation of ATP, and NADPH.
Cell Walls
protects, structurally supports cell
Application for 3:1 organelles
we need to understand them so we can make sure that they are functioning properly in the human body.
Malfunction - lipids in the liver could relate the problem to the golgi bodies. May not be sorting or packaging them correctly.
We would have problems diagnosing patients.
3:3 Discuss the relationship between the size of a cell and its internal volume. In describing why all cells are not big, tell what happens as cells do start to grow bigger and how some larger cells solve this surface area to volume problem.
Surface area to volume ratio requires that cells be small.
¨As cells get larger in volume, relative surface area actually decreases.
¨Limits how large actively metabolizing cells can become
¨Cells needing greater surface area use modifications such as folding, microvilli, etc.