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20 Cards in this Set

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The normal amount of chromosomes for an organism, for instance, 46 being the standard number of chromosomes in the typical human chromosome set. extra chromosomes, which can bring about new species or medical complications are deemed B chromosomes.
a b-cell lymphoma presumably representing a tumour of interfollicular b-lymphocytes that may be functional. Those that are secrete identical immunoglobulin molecules.
a class of dna rearrangement that generates a supernumerary copy of a gene in the genome. this would allow each gene to evolve independently to produce distinct functions. Such a set of evolutionarily related genes can be called a gene family.
malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues; characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukocytes; one of the four major types of cancer.
rearrangement of a chromosome in which a segment is moved from one location to another, either within the same chromosome or to another chromosome. This is sometimes reciprocal, when one fragment is exchanged for another.
A sarcoma characterised by the presence of small cells, cells measuring 9-14 micrometers with a faint or indistinct rim of cytoplasm and an oval-to-elongated nucleus with relatively dense chromatin.
chromosome abnormality in which part of a single chromosome has been lost.
a malignant new growth that arises from epithelium, found in skin or, more commonly, the lining of body organs, for example: breast, prostate, lung, stomach or bowel. Carcinomas tend to infiltrate into adjacent tissue and spread (metastasize) to distant organs, for example: to bone, liver, lung or the brain.
A congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome; results in a flat face and short stature and mental retardation.
The transfer of disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it. It may be due either to the transfer of pathogenic microorganisms (for example, tubercle bacilli) or to transfer of cells, as in malignant tumours. The capacity to metastasize is a characteristic of all malignant tumours.
ChiasmaThe point of contact between paired chromatids during meiosis, resulting in a cross-shaped configuration and representing the cytological manifestation of crossing over like the letter X.
An abnormal mass of tissue that results from excessive cell division that is uncontrolled and progressive, also called a neoplasm. tumours perform no useful body function. They may be either benign (not cancerous) or malignant.
A single diploid cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes at fertilization (sperm and ovum). The cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell).The fusion of two haploid gametes with the consequential creation of a diploid zygote cell, which can raplidy multiply after this fertilisation of fusion of genetic material occurs.
a complex family of polypeptide hormones or biological factors that are produced by the body to control growth, division and maturation of blood cells by the bone marrow. They regulate the division and proliferation of cells and influence the growth rate of some cancers. These factors occur naturally but some can be synthesised using molecular biology techniques and are used clinically to stimulate normal white Cell production following chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.
describes a nucleus, cell or organism possessing a single set of unpaired chromosomes. gametes are haploid.
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes. Of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes. Pertaining to one set of each chromosome, for instance a human gamete is haploid, possessing one of each of the 23 chromosomes of the human genome.
The phenomenon exhibited by most normal (anchorage dependent) animal cells in culture that stop dividing once a critical cell density is reached.
Specialised haploid cells produced by meiosis and involved in sexual reproduction.
male gametes are usually small and motile (spermatozoa), whereas female gametes (oocytes) are larger and nonmotile.
The microtubule organising centre which, in animal cells, surrounds the centriole and which will divide to organise the two poles of the mitotic spindle. By directing the assembly of a cells skeleton, this organelle controls division, motility and shape.
a diploid cell has one chromosome from each parental set.
most animal cells have a diploid set of chromosomes. The diploid human genome has 46 chromosomes.
spindle and mitosis.
Fibres that form during See [[nuclear division, which attach themselves to chromosomes and attract them towards the spindle poles.
The normal amount of chromosomes for an organism, for instance, 46 being the standard number of chromosomes in the typical human chromosome set. extra chromosomes, which can bring about new species or medical complications are deemed B chromosomes.
a b-cell lymphoma presumably representing a tumour of interfollicular b-lymphocytes that may be functional. Those that are secrete identical immunoglobulin molecules.
a class of dna rearrangement that generates a supernumerary copy of a gene in the genome. this would allow each gene to evolve independently to produce distinct functions. Such a set of evolutionarily related genes can be called a gene family.
malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues; characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukocytes; one of the four major types of cancer.
rearrangement of a chromosome in which a segment is moved from one location to another, either within the same chromosome or to another chromosome. This is sometimes reciprocal, when one fragment is exchanged for another.
A sarcoma characterised by the presence of small cells, cells measuring 9-14 micrometers with a faint or indistinct rim of cytoplasm and an oval-to-elongated nucleus with relatively dense chromatin.
chromosome abnormality in which part of a single chromosome has been lost.
a malignant new growth that arises from epithelium, found in skin or, more commonly, the lining of body organs, for example: breast, prostate, lung, stomach or bowel. Carcinomas tend to infiltrate into adjacent tissue and spread (metastasize) to distant organs, for example: to bone, liver, lung or the brain.
A congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome; results in a flat face and short stature and mental retardation.
The transfer of disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it. It may be due either to the transfer of pathogenic microorganisms (for example, tubercle bacilli) or to transfer of cells, as in malignant tumours. The capacity to metastasize is a characteristic of all malignant tumours.
ChiasmaThe point of contact between paired chromatids during meiosis, resulting in a cross-shaped configuration and representing the cytological manifestation of crossing over like the letter X.
An abnormal mass of tissue that results from excessive cell division that is uncontrolled and progressive, also called a neoplasm. tumours perform no useful body function. They may be either benign (not cancerous) or malignant.
A single diploid cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes at fertilization (sperm and ovum). The cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell).The fusion of two haploid gametes with the consequential creation of a diploid zygote cell, which can raplidy multiply after this fertilisation of fusion of genetic material occurs.
a complex family of polypeptide hormones or biological factors that are produced by the body to control growth, division and maturation of blood cells by the bone marrow. They regulate the division and proliferation of cells and influence the growth rate of some cancers. These factors occur naturally but some can be synthesised using molecular biology techniques and are used clinically to stimulate normal white Cell production following chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.
describes a nucleus, cell or organism possessing a single set of unpaired chromosomes. gametes are haploid.
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes. Of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes. Pertaining to one set of each chromosome, for instance a human gamete is haploid, possessing one of each of the 23 chromosomes of the human genome.
The phenomenon exhibited by most normal (anchorage dependent) animal cells in culture that stop dividing once a critical cell density is reached.
Specialised haploid cells produced by meiosis and involved in sexual reproduction.
male gametes are usually small and motile (spermatozoa), whereas female gametes (oocytes) are larger and nonmotile.
The microtubule organising centre which, in animal cells, surrounds the centriole and which will divide to organise the two poles of the mitotic spindle. By directing the assembly of a cells skeleton, this organelle controls division, motility and shape.
a diploid cell has one chromosome from each parental set.
most animal cells have a diploid set of chromosomes. The diploid human genome has 46 chromosomes.
spindle and mitosis.
Fibres that form during See [[nuclear division, which attach themselves to chromosomes and attract them towards the spindle poles.