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120 Cards in this Set

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A monohybrid cross is
a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only one trait.
Assuming that the probability of having a female child is 50% and the probability of having a male child is also 50%, what is the probability that a couple's firstborn child is female and second-born child is male?
25%
A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be __________ to transmit it to offspring.
heterozygous for the trait and able
Dr. Smith's parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith's parents could have which of the following genotypes?
Dd and Dd
Imagine that beak color in a finch species is controlled by a single gene. You mate a finch homozygous for orange (pigmented) beak with a finch homozygous for ivory (unpigmented) beak and get numerous offspring, all of which have a pale, ivory-orange beak. This pattern of color expression is most likely to be an example of
incomplete dominance.
The expression of both alleles for a trait in a heterozygous individual illustrates
co-dominance.
Which of the following terms refers to the situation where a single phenotypic characteristic is determined by the additive effects of two or more genes?
polygenic inheritance.
Linked genes generally
do not follow the laws of independent assortment.
What is the normal complement of sex chromosomes in a human male?
one X chromosome and one Y chromosome
Recessive X-linked traits are more likely to be expressed in a male than a female because
the male's phenotype results entirely from his single X-linked gene.
A karyotype is most like which of the following?
Photographs of every couple at a high school prom
Nondisjunction occurs when
members of a chromosome pair fail to separate.
Solve this monohybrid genetics problem: Black hair is governed by the dominant gene (B) and blond hair is determined by the recessive gene (b). In this monohybrid cross, if both parents are heterozygous, what percentage of the offspring would be expected to have blond hair?
25%
Which of the following is the BEST description of Mendel's principle of independent assortment?
Genes for different characteristics sort into eggs or sperm without regard for the position of other genes on other chromosomes.
If both parents in a dihybrid cross are heterozygous for both traits, the expected phenotypic ratio in the offspring would be
9:3:3:1
Solve the following multiple allele problem: Susan, a mother with Type B blood, has a child with Type O blood. She claims that Craig, who has Type A blood, is the father. He claims that he cannot possibly be the father. Further blood tests ordered by the judge reveal that Craig is AA. The judge rules that
Craig is right and doesn't have to pay child support.
Different alleles of the same gene are found
at the same place on homologous chromosomes.
If you had an individual who showed a dominant phenotype and you wanted to find out if the individual was homozygous or heterozygous, you could do a test cross. You would cross the unknown with a known
homozygous recessive.
Many genetic disorders of humans are caused by
recessive alleles.
TRUE OR FALSE?
Most human genetic diseases are treatable if caught early.
FALSE
A person who has type AB blood illustrates the principle of
co-dominance.
Sometimes, linked genes are not inherited because they are broken apart during the formation of the gametes. These breaks are caused by
crossing over.
How many sex chromosomes are in an egg or a sperm?
one
By studying a karyotype, a prospective parent would be able to tell
if there is an alteration in the number of chromosomes.
In the gene arrangement ABCDEFG breaks and a segment repositions itself so that the segment now reads ABEDCFG, what specific kind of mutation has occurred?
Inversion
Which of the following genotypes would be homozygous dominant for both alleles?
DDEE
If a colorblind woman marries a colorblind man, the chances of any daughter being of normal vision is
0%
When you trace the occurrence of a specific characteristic through your past ancestry, you are constructing a family ______________.
pedigree
Human skin color varies greatly from one individual to another. The specific genetic situation to account for this fact is
polygenic inheritance - several genes act together to govern the phenotype of a certain characteristic.
Mendel was fortunate to work out the laws of segregation and independent assortment because he used an organism that reproduced quickly and in which the traits were discrete (easy to observe). Mendel's organism of choice was the
pea plant
The monomers of DNA and RNA are
nucleotides.
The copying mechanism of DNA is most like
using a photographic negative to make a positive image.
When one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains
50% of the parent DNA.
The one gene-one polypeptide theory states that
the function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific polypeptide.
The transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called
transcription.
Experiments have demonstrated that the words of the genetic code (the units that specify amino acids) are
three-nucleotide sequences.
Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the linking of RNA nucleotides to form RNA?
RNA polymerase
Translation consists of which of the following?
the conversion of genetic information from the language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins
A physical or chemical agent that changes the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called
a mutagen.
Replication of DNA is said to be semiconservative because
each separated strand serves as a template to make an exact copy.
Each DNA strand has a backbone that consists of alternating
sugar and phosphate molecules.
DNA polymerase
All of the above
If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT, the mRNA codons would be _____________.
UAC-GCA
A chromosome that has been broken and rejoined in a reversed sequence has undergone which of the following mutations?
Inversion.
Which of the following is the enzyme that HIV uses to synthesize DNA on an RNA template?
reverse transcriptase
One type of virus that infects bacteria is called a(n)
phage
Sticky Ends are
DNA fragments with single-stranded ends.
DNA ligase binds
nucleotides together.
In the process of human gene cloning using recombinant plasmids, the bacterial plasmid
functions as a vector.
Retroviruses such as HIV use __________ to convert information stored in their RNA to information stored in DNA.
reverse transcriptase
Genetically modifying __________ cells may directly affect future generations.
germ
If you commit a crime, you need to make sure that you do not leave even the smallest speck of blood, hair, etc., from your body behind, because if you do, the DNA in this material can be amplified by __________, subjected to genetic analysis, and used to identify you as the perpetrator of the crime.
PCR
Segments of eukaryotic DNA that can move or be copied from one site to another in the genome are called
transposons.
Gel electrophoresis separates DNA molecules on the basis of
their lengths
When a virus takes over the machinery of a cell, it forces the cell to manufacture
more viral particles.
If one sticky end has the nucleotide sequence TTAA exposed, the piece of DNA that will come in and attach to that sticky end will have the sequence ___________.
AATT
A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that is used to prevent infectious disease is called a __________.
vaccine
In the gel electrophoresis chamber, the DNA fragments migrate toward the __________ charged pole.
positively
A transgenic organism has acquired genes from
another species.
Most scientists do not consider viruses to be alive because
they are unable to reproduce on their own.
Epithelial tissues are characterized as such because they
cover both external and internal body surfaces.
Which muscle tissue is responsible for voluntary movement?
skeletal muscle only
Which of these is an example of positive feedback?
labor pains increasing
What kind of connective tissue has a liquid matrix?
blood
The basic unit of nervous tissue is the
neuron
Structure in the living world is organized at hierarchal levels. Which of the following choices lists several of these, from least inclusive to most inclusive?
cell → tissue → organ → organ system → organism
The main function of muscle tissue is __________.
contraction
Which of the following is most likely to be responsible if your blood sugar were to come back down following a rise?
a homeostatic mechanism based on negative feedback
When body temperature is too low, which of the following occurs?
Blood vessels in the skin contract.
The organ in the body most responsible for maintaining water and salt balance is the __________.
kidney
Which of the following neurons is part of the peripheral nervous system?
Sensory neuron and motor neuron
The minimum change in a membrane's voltage that must occur to trigger an action potential is the ____________.
threshold
The movement of an action potential along a neuron is most like
a crowd at a sporting event doing the wave around a stadium.
Which of the following neurotransmitters is associated with sleep, mood, attention, and learning?
Serotonin
Arthritis is a common result of aging, affecting a person's ability to
move their joints.
Muscles are connected to bones by _____________.
tendons
Functionally, what is the muscle fiber's fundamental unit of contraction?
sacromere
At a chemical synapse, what causes the ion channels on the receiving cell's membrane to close?
The neurotransmitter is broken down by an enzyme.
Digestion is the
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food.
Muscular action propels food through the alimentary canal by a process called __________.
peristalsis
How does Helicobacter pylori cause gastric ulcers in humans?
It damages the stomach's mucous coat.
Which of the following mechanisms helps prevent the gastric juice from digesting the stomach lining?
mucus lining the inside surface of the stomach
Someone with liver failure will, in particular, have problems with the digestion and absorption of ___________.
fats
Absorption of water is one major function of which of the following structures?
colon
The tongue does all of the following except ___________.
Secrete saliva
Movement of food from the stomach into the esophagus is usually prevented by __________.
sphincter
Which of the following is the usual cause of heartburn?
backflow of acid chyme from the stomach into the lower esophagus
Bile from the liver is stored in the _____________ before entering the intestine.
gallbladder
The epithelial cells lining the intestine have surface projections that increase the area for absorption. These projections are called ________________.
microvilli
The two major divisions of the nervous system are the _____________.
CNS and PNS
Which of these carry oxygen-poor blood?
pulmonary arteries
Which of these carry oxygen-poor blood?
pulmonary arteries
Why does the left ventricle have a thicker wall than the right ventricle?
A more muscular wall is required to supply the pumping that powers the flow of blood into the systemic circuit.
The one-way flow of blood in veins is maintained by ______________.
valves
Blood pressure is lowest in ___________.
veins
If your blood pressure were 120/70, it would mean that
Your blood pressure during systole is 120 and your blood pressure during diastole is 70.
Plasma is primarily what?
water
You increase your risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing your consumption of ________.
fruits and vegetables
What path does a molecule of oxygen take from the nose to the respiratory surface?
Pharynx → larynx → trachea → bronchus → bronchiole → alveolus
Breathing is regulated by
autonomic centers in the brain.
Oxygen is mostly transported through the body
bound to hemoglobin.
Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across ______________.
alveoli
A new flu vaccine is needed every year because
new flu strains are regularly evolving.
Which response occurs as part of our nonspecific defense system?
Inflammation
Histamine
causes local swelling of the affected area.
A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n) _____________.
antigen
Anaphylactic shock is an example of an ________________.
allergic response
Which gland exerts primary control over the concentration of sugar in the blood?
pancreas
Which of the following hormones causes a rise in the concentration of sugar in the blood?
glucagons
When the concentration of glucose in the blood rises following the digestion of a meal, what is the hormonal response?
Insulin is released, but not glucagons.
What is the metabolic abnormality that underlies the characteristic symptoms of diabetes mellitus?
The body's cells can't absorb enough glucose from the blood.
Where in a woman's reproductive tract does fertilization most often take place?
In the upper part of the oviduct
A vasectomy
prevents the movement of sperm into the urethra.
A diaphragm functions as a birth control device by ______________.
preventing the movement of sperm into the uterus
Which of the following is not one of the endocrine glands?
Alveoli glands
Which of the following glands produces hormones that enable the body to respond to stress?
Adrenal glands
Maintaining a dynamic balance between too much or too little calcium in the blood, or insulin in the blood is described by the general term:
Homeostasis
All of the following statements about hormones are correct except:
They are carried by the nervous system.
In which of the following ways are mature human sperm and ova similar?
They both have the same number of chromosomes.
Which of the following sequences does not indicate a DIRECT pathway that blood might follow in human circulation?
Right ventricle → pulmonary vein