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26 Cards in this Set

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Dominance of Angiosperms
Most abundant plants on earth - 250,000 species (only 750 species of gymnosperms)

Cross-pollination between individuals lead to more genetic diversity
-Plants became more & more adapted to their environments

Co-evolution with insects, birds, & mammals facilitated pollination & seed dispersal

Fruits for seed protection

Fast seed production
Flowers: Definition
Modified stems bearing modified leaves
Flowers: receptacle
Flower parts are attached in whorls to the receptacle (flower base that sits on the end of the stem)
Flowers: Sepals
3-5; green & leaflike; protect the immature flower; have the ability to preform photosynthesis
Flowers: petals
colored to attract pollinators; may be separate, fused, or missing
Flowers: Androecium
whorl of stamens (pollen-bearing anthers attached to stalk-like filaments)

Pollen: usually contains male gamete
Flowers: Gynoecium
one or more carpels (pistil), each containing an:
Ovary
Ovule
Stigma
What do these 3 structures develope into?
Ovary
Ovule
Stigma
(develops into a fruit)
(develops into a seed)
(sticky or feathery to adhere to pollen grains)
Flowers: Nectaries
structures located at base of ovary that secrete nectar

fluid that contains sugars & other molecules to attract insects, birds, & other pollinators
corolla
whorl of petals
calyx
whorl of sepals
Pollination
Process by which pollen is placed on the stigma
What do pollen grains consist of?
a tube cell & a generative cell
Cross-pollination
between individuals (carried by wind or animals)
Self-pollination
male & female gametes from same plant
Ecologically advantageous under certain circumstances
What are the 2 major pollinators and what attracts each?
Bees usu. attracted by odor
Birds usu. attracted by color
Dichogamous
male and female parts mature at different times
Name 2 advantages to dichogamous plants
prevents self-polination

increases diversity
Double Fertilization
Pollen grain adheres to stigma
- Tube cell grows down toward ovary
**Generative cell divides to form 2 sperm**

Tube penetrates the embryo sac
- One sperm fertilizes the egg, forming a diploid zygote (which becomes the seed)
- The other sperm fuses with 2 polar nuclei, forming a triploid endosperm (food supply for growing seed)
Through what process does the generative cell divide?
MITOSIS
Vegatative Reproduction
A form of asexual reproduction resulting in genetically identical individuals

Offspring are clones from portions of roots, stems, leaves, or ovules
Types of Vegatative Reproduction
Runners
Rhizomes
Suckers
Adventitious plantlets
Runners
modified stems (strawberries)
Rhizomes
underground modified stems (weeds, potato “eyes”)
Suckers
buds on underground modified stems (bananas, dandelions)
Adventitious plantlets
arise from meristems on leaves

ex. maternity plant