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19 Cards in this Set

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Name the 6 Characteristics of Plants
Choloroplasts
Starch
Cellulose in Cell Walls
Cell plate
Alternation of Generation
Gametes produce gametangia
Taxonomy: Seedless Plants
Bryophyta - Mosses
Hepatophyta - Liverworts
Anthocerophyta - Hornworts
Taxonomy: Seed Plants: Gymnosperms
Coniferophyta - Conifers
Cycadophyta - cycads
Gingophyta - Ginko
Gnetophyta - Gnetae
Taxonomy: Seed Plants: Angiosperms
Anthophyta - Flowering Plants
Name 5 Plant adaptions to Land
1. Gametangium - protective cell layer of gametes and embryos to prevent drying.

2. Roots - absorb water and nutruients

3. Cuticle - prevents water loss

4. Spores - resistant to dissication

5. Seeds - carried several ways, allowed a period of dormancy, nutrition (endosperm)
Bryophytes: characteristics (5)
1. Alteration of Generations

2. multicellular gametophyte is dominate

3. secual and asexual reproduction

4. require water for reproduction

5. lack vascular tissue therefore they are small
Division Hepatophyta: Structures
thallus - leafy part w/ stalks

air pores - on upper surface which open into air chambers and allow carbon diioxide and oxygen gas exchange

NO cuticle

Rhizoids - roots for absorption/anchoring

gammae cups - produce gammae
Division Hepatophyta: sexual reproduction/male
antheridia - flat inverted cone on a stalk
Division Hepatophyta: sexual reproduction/female
archegonia - palm tree like on a stalk

have a neck canal where sperm swim to egg
Division Hepatophyta: Sporophyte stage
sprorphyte developes from embryo

elater - cells which dislodge spores

spore mother cells - make new gametes via mitosis
Division Bryophyta: Protonema
first shoot from spore

it develops rhizoids and buds (which develope the gametophytes)
Division Bryophyta: Gametophytes mature into:
Archegonia - female part between paraphyses, egg located in swollen part, neck canal

Antherida - male part between paraphyses, sperm is released when water lands on it
Division Bryophyta: Sporophyte Stage
Developes from embryo. Spores are held in capsule on a shoot and surrounded by sterile archegonial cells.
Division Tracheophytes: Characteristics
Vascular seedless plants
ex. club mosses - Lycopodium (ground pine)
ex. horsetails - Equisetum
ex. ferns - whisk fern

Contain Vascular tissues: xylem and phloem.

Alternation of generations

Sporophyte stage is slightly more dominate
Division Tracheophytes: Gametophyte Stage
Protonema = prothallus - heart shape containing archegonia and antheridia and also has rhizoids
Division Tracheophytes: Is water needed for reproduction?
Yes
Division Tracheophytes: Sporophyte Stage
main body of a fern

developes from thalllus

rhizome is an underground stem that produces fiddle head which unfolds into the frond
Division Tracheophytes: Sporophyte Stage: Frond
a single compound leaf w/ pinnae projecting from single rachis
Division Tracheophytes: Sporophyte Stage: Sori
develope on under side of pinnae which are clusters of sporangia which produce haploid spore via meiosis

sporangia split opposite of annulus releasing spores