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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anterior
near head
Caudal
toward tail
Cephalic
extending toward or located on or near head
Distal
located away from the center of the body, the origin, or the point of attachment
Dorsal
pertaining to the back
Ventral
pertains to the belly or lower surface
Median
a plane passing through a bilaterally symmetrical animal that divides it into raght and left ahlves
Sagittal
Planes dividing an animal along the median line or parallel to the median
Posterior
toward the animals hind end
larynx
Air travels through the larynx from the glottis and to the trachea.
Proximal
located near the center of the body, the origin, or the point of attachment
Difference between male and femal fetal pigs?
depends on location of urogenital opening.
- female: ventral to the anus
- male: posterior to the umbilical cord with scrotal sacs just ventral to the anus
thymus
a large mass of glandular material surrounds the larnyx and produces lymphocytes which boost the immune system
thyroid gland
brownish-colored
sternum
breast bone, structural support
diaphragm
a sheet of muscle that seperates the abdominal cavity fro the thoracic cavity
bronchi
2 structures that the trachea splits into
bronchioles
small structures resulting from spliting of the bronchi.
alveoli
clusters microscopic air sacsat the end of bronchioles, with single cell layer and are covered by capillaries
tracheal system
respiratory system of anthropods, which allows the exchange of gases to occur independent of the circulatory system
tracheal system: spiracles
air enters through these openings, located along the side of insects
tracheal system: tracheae
system of tubules where are travels after entering, branch extensively, exchange of air
tracheal system: air sacs
when compressed by movement of surrounding organs, they force large volumes of air through the system
Crayfish: water movement
A gill bailer moves water over the gills in a sculling motion.
Fish: water movement
Gill covers called opercula are raised to draw water in through the open momuth. Once mouth is closed the depression of the opercula forces water over the gills.
What is the importance of increased surface area in the small intestine?
this is so that absorption is increased which is a main function of the SI
epithelial cells
they are columnar and are involved in absorption
goblet cells
secrete mucus into the small intestine, serving as a lubricant for the passage of chyme
submucosa
a layer of connective tissue that underlies the mucosa
Villi and microvilli
finger like projections, increase surface area, villi are covered by mucosa which contain the micrvilli
two cell types of mucosa
epithelial and goblet
circular muscle
change the diameter of the intestive
longitudinal muscle
changes the length
paristalsis
contraction of the muscles in the SI to move chyme down
liver
removes waste from blood
gallbladder
located under the liver, a green sac, which stores bile from the liver
stomach
digestion of food into chyme
pancreas
a glandular mass lying in the angle between the curve of the stomach and duodenum. Secretes enzymes used for digestion.
spleen
attached to messentaries to the stomach, lymphatic tissue which is used in the breakdown of red blood cells
small intestine
digestion and absorption
large intestine
absorbs H2O, rectum is the last part where waste is stored before being release from the anus.