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60 Cards in this Set

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What kind of fruit is split along one carpel edge?
Follicles
Milkweed, larkspur
What kind of fruit is split along 2 carpel edges with seeds attached to carpel edges?
Legumes
Peas, beans
What kind of fruit is not split and has a wing formed from the outer tissues?
Samaras
maples, elms, ashes
What kind of fruit has a single seed enclosed in a hard pit?
Drupes
peaches, cherries, plums
What kind of fruit has more than one seed and a thin skin?
True berries
blueberries, tomatoes, peppers, grapes
What kind of fruit is derived from many ovaries of a single flower?
Aggregates
strawberries, blackberries
What kind of fruit is developed from a cluster of flowers?
Multiple fruits
pineapples, mulberries
What establishes the root-shoot axis in embryogenesis?
Apical meristems
What critical events happen during embryo development?
*Establishment of a food supply

*Differentiation of ovule tissue into hard protective covering
In the first zygotic division, the smaller daughter cell will eventually become what?
The embryo
In the first zygotic division, the larger daughter cell will eventually become what?
A suspensor
The protoderm will become what kind of tissue?

What is its function?
Dermal tissue

Protects plant from desiccation
The ground meristem will become what kind of tissue?

What is its function?
Ground tissue

Food and water storage
The procambium will become what kind of tissue?

What is its function?
Vascular tissue

To perform water and nutrient transport
What is morphogenesis?
Formation of the structure of an organism or part; differentiation and growth of tissues and organs during development
In what 4 ways are seeds adaptive?
1)Seed can remain dormant in unfavorable conditions

2)Maximum protection is given to young plant during vulnerable stages

3)Stored food permits young plant to develop prior to photosynthesis

4)Facilitates migration of genotypes to new habitats
What are the 4 main kinds of fruit dispersal?
1)Wind

2)Water

3)Animal coats

4)Animal digestive tracts
What is germination?
The resumption of growth and development by a spore or seed
What is a scutelum?
The modified cotelydon in cereal grains
Water moves through what areas of the plant?
Spaces between cell protoplasts
Plasmodesmata
Cell membranes
Xylem
What are the 7 micronutrients needed by the plant?
1)iron
2)chlorine
3)copper
4)manganese
5)zinc
6)molybdenum
7)boron
B Mo Cu Cl Mn Zn

Bob’s Mom and Couzns Clio and Moly will manage soon
Which 3 macronutrients constitute 94% of the plant's dry weight?
1)carbon
2)oxygen
3)hydrogen
Which 6 macronutrients constitute 1% of the plant's dry weight?
1)nitrogen
2)potassium
3)phosphorus
4)calcium
5)magnesium
6)sulfur
C HOPK'NS CaFé is Mighty good
How is a hydroponic culture used to identify nutritional requirements of plants?
1)a seedling is grown in a complete nutrient solution

2)the seedling is transplanted to a solution that lacks 1 suspected essential nutrient

3)the growth of the seedling is observed for the prescence of abnormal symptoms

4)if the seedling's growth is normals, nutrient may not be essential but, if the growth is abnormal, nutrient is essential
Where are most roots found?
Topsoil
What are 5 characteristics of a Bryophyte?
1)highly adapted to terrestrial environments

2)gametophytes are photosynthetic

3)sporophytes are attached to, and nutritionally dependent on, gametophytes

4)require water to reproduce sexually

5)most are small
What 3 kinds of plants are Bryophytes?
1)Mosses

2)Liverworts

3)Hornworts
What do gametophytes of mosses typically consist of?
Small leaf-like structures arranged spirally or alternately around a stem-like axis, anchored to substrate by rhizoids
What is the archegonia?
A female sex organ occurring in mosses, ferns, and most gymnosperms
What is the antheridia?
A male sex organ occurring in mosses, ferns, and most gymnosperms
Mosses are especially sensitive to what kind of danger?
Air pollution
What division do liverworts belong to?
Hepaticophyta
What division do hornworts belong to?
Anthocerotophyta
What do vascular tissues consist of?
Specialized cylindrical or elongated cells that form a network throughout plant
What does the xylem conduct?
Water and dissolved minerals upward from roots
What does the phloem conduct?
Sucrose and hormone signals throughout the plant
What division do club mosses belong to?
Lycophyta
What are 3 characteristics about horsetails?
*Single genus, Equisetum

*All species are homosporous

*Live in damp places
Sporophytes consist of photosynthetic stems arising from underground rhizomes
How does the fern's life cycle differ from that of a moss?
A)Greater development

B)Independence and dominance of fern’s Sporophyte
What is a frond?
The leaf of a fern
What is a rhizome?
A horizontal, usually underground stem that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes
What is a sorus (sori)?
A cluster of sporangia borne on the underside of a fern frond
When did seed plants first appear?
425 million years ago
What are 3 advantages to seed plants?
1)drought protection
2)enhanced dispersal
3)dormant phase
In a gymnosperm, what rests exposed and is not completely enclosed by sporophyte tissues at time of pollination?
The ovule
What are the 4 groups of gymnosperms?
1)conifers

2)cycads

3)gnetophytes

4)Ginkgo
What is pressure potential?
Physical pressure resulting from water entering cell vacuole
What is a micropyle?
Opening in the ovule of a seed plant through which the pollen tube usually enters
In a pine, how long is the fertilization process?
15 months
Which gymnosperms have vessels in their xylem?
Gnetophytes
What is solute (osmotic) potential?
Smallest amount of pressure needed to stop osmosis
What is water potential?
Total potential energy of water in a plant
What is root pressure?
Movement of water into the plant and up the xylem columns despite absence of transpiration
What protist lacks mitochondria?
Pelomyxa
What is a pseudopod?
Temporary outgrowth used by some microorganisms as an organ of feeding or locomotion
What is a cyst?
A small capsulelike sac that encloses certain organisms in their dormant or larval stage
What is a phagotroph?
An organism that ingests nutrients by phagocytosis
What is an osmotroph?
Organisms that uptake dissolved organic compounds by osmosis for nutrition
What are the 6 ways that protists can reproduce?
Assexual:
binary fission - equal halves
budding - progeny cell smaller
schizogony - multiple fission

Sexual:
gametic meiosis - before gametes
zygotic meiosis - after fertilization
intermediary meiosis - alternating
What are the 6 lineages of protists?
Euglenozoa
Alveolata
Stramenopila
Rhodophyta
Chlorophyta
Choanoflagellida