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242 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the Levels of Organization from biggest to smallest
biosphere, ecosystems, communities, populations, organisms, organs and organ systems, tissues, cells, organelles, and molecules.
everything; all the environments on earth that are inhabited by life.
ex: the earth
all living things in a particular area; includes all nonliving components that life interacts with.
ex: a forest in a particular area
array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem.
ex: diff. trees, plants, animals, in a forest
individuals of a specific species in a specified area
ex: a specfic tree in a community
individual living things
ex: each individual tree, plant, etc..
organs and organ systems
body part consisting of two or more tissues;
team of organs that cooperate in a specific function
ex: a tongue is an organ and the digestive system is and organ system because it includes the tongue, stomach, and intestines
groups of similar cells
ex: skin
life's fundamental unit of structure and function
ex: mucscle cells
*also the cell is one of the themes of bio.
various functional components that make up cells
ex: chloroplasts
chemical structure consisting of two or more chemical units (atoms)
ex:carbon dioxide
reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study
name the eleven themes of biology
the cell, heritable information, emergent properties of biological systems, regulation, interaction with the environment, energy and life, unity and diversity, evolution, stucture and function, scientific inquiry, and science /technology/society
heritable information
a theme of bio.; inheritance of biological information through DNA
emergent properties of biological systems
systems properties emerge as a result of interactions among components at the lower levels.
ex: terminte mounds, cauliflower
theme of biology; feedback mechanisms that regulate biological systems. Positive= a trigger to escalate something. Negative=trigger to stop something.
ex: regulation maintains body temp.
interaction with the environment
theme of biology; organisms are open sytems that exchange materials and energy with their surroundings
energy and life
theme of biology; all orgs. must perform work, which requires energy. Energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers
unity and diversity
theme of biology; despite the diversity of life, there is also much unity, such as a universal genetic code. the more closely related two species are the more characteristics they share
theme of biology; explains unity and diversity; natural selection accounts for adaptations of popultions to their environment through the reproductive success of varying individuals
structure and function
theme of biology; correlated at all levels of biological organization; way something is developed to carry out a specific function
scientific inquiry
theme of biology; process of science including observation based discovery and the testing of explanations through hypothesis-based inquiry
science, technology,and society
theme of biology; many technologies are goal-oriented applications of science
2 types of adaptations
homology - structure variation yet same bones (ex: human arm, bat wings, dolphin fin)
analogy - ex: insects and birds learning to fly
shows genetic/morphilogical/breeding similarities/potnetial
deoxyribonucleic acid; substance of genes
unit of inheritance; transmit info. from parents to offspring
substance that cannot be broken down to other chemical substances by chemical reactions
substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio
essestial elements of life
25 out of 92; Most common: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
Parts of an atom
nuetrons and protons are packed densely together to form the atomic nucleus; electrons form a cloud around the nucleus
part of an atom; no charge; subtract amount of protons from the atomic mass to find the number of nuetrons
part of an atom; positive charge; atomic # tells the amount of protons in a certain element
part of an atom; negative charge; amount of e- and protons in an element are equal
atomic number
# of protons unique to a certain element; written as a subscript
when atom has more nuetrons than other atoms of the same element
capacity to cause change
potential energy
energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure.
ex: a ball at the top of a hill; water being held back by a dam
energy levels
different states of potential energy that e- have in an atom
e- energy level
correlated with its average distance from the nucleus which is represented through e- shells
e- configuration
distribution of electrons in the atoms e- shells (displayed in the periodic table of elements)
valence e-
# of e- in the outermost shell
valence shell
outermost e- shell
covalent bond
sharing of valence e- by two atoms
nonpolar bond
type of covalent bond; e- are shared equally; hydrophobic
polar bond
one atom bonded to a more electronegative atom; e- not equally shared; hydrophilic
Ionic bond
attraction between cations and anions causing a transfer in e- between atoms
hydrogen bond
forms when an H atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
Van der Waals
everchanging "hot spots" of + and - charged that enable all atoms and molecules to stick to one another
a charged atom
+ charged ion
- charged ion
2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
molecular shape and function
shape is determined by the positions of the atoms' orbitals; shape determines how biological molecules recognize and respond to one another specifically
four emergent properties of water
1)cohesion (and adhesion) 2)Moderation of Temperature 3)Insulation of bodies of water by floating ice 4)Solvent of life
Cohesion and Adhesion
- Emergent property of water
Cohesion: aka Tension theory (capillary action); ablitiy of water moleclues to stick to each other using hydrogen bonds; allows transport to occur(ex. water traveling from roots to leaves). Adhesion:aka Surface tension; abilty for water to stick to other things; idea that water can cling to a wall (ex. shrew walking on water)
moderation of temperature
-Emergent property of water
water can absorb heat to make things cooler and release heat to make things warmer
Insulation of Bodies of Water by Floating Ice
-Emergent property of water
Ice is less dense than water which allows it to float. Solid water expands due to H bonding. Floating ice insulates the water below preventing freezing and allowing life to exist.
Solvent of Life
-Emergent property of water
universal solvent
solvent- dissolving sgent of a solution (substance dissolved is the solute); aqueos solution- one in which water is the solvent
kinetic energy
energy of motion
a measure of the total amount of kinetic energy
average kinetic energy
amount of heat it takes to rise the temperature of 1g of water by 1degree Celcius
specific heat
amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of that substance to change its temperature by 1degree Celcius
--the specific heat of water is 1cal/g/C
because of the high specfic heat of h2o relative to other materials, wather will change its temp. less when it absorbs or loses a given amount of heat
heat of vaporization
quanity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state
evaporative cooling
ie:sweating; the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down. occurs because the "hottest" molecules (high/greatest kinetic energy) ate the most likely to leave as gas while the low energy molecules stay and cools you down
hydrogen ion
single proton with a charge of 1+
hydroxide ion
water molecule that loses a proton; has a charge 1-
substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
helps maintain pH; substances that minimize cahnges in concentrations of
H+ and OH- in a solution
acid rain
rain with a pH lower than 5.6
shape of a water molecule
organic molecules consisting of only hydrogen and carbon
variation in the architecture of organic molecules
3 types: structural, geometric, enantiomers
structural isomer
difference in covalent partners
geometric isomer
same covalent partnerships, difference in arrangement around the double bond
molecules that are mirror images of each other; differ in spatial arrangement arounf an asymmetric carbon
name the six functional
hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, and phosphate
oxygen bonded to a hydrogen;-OH; alcohols
=O; double bonded oxygen attached to a carbon; ketone- if the carbonyl group is within the carbon skeleton, aldehyde- if the carbonly group is at the end of the carbon skeleton
an oxygen is double bonded to the carbon as well as a hydroxyl group
(-COOH); carboxylic acid
a nitrogen bonded to two hydrogens which is bonded to the carbon (-NH2); amines
sulfur bonded to a hydrogen (HS-); thiols
a phosphorous atom bonded to four oxygens; organic phosphates
dehydration reaction
two molecules covalently bond to each other through the loss of a water molecule; also called condensation reaction
reverse of dehydration reaction
name the macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
have little to no affinity for water; made from 3 fatty chains attached to a glycerol molecule; fats
one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into specific conformations; 4 diff. stuctures
nucleic acids
exsist as polymers called polynucleotides
glycosidic linkage
covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by dehydration reaction
used for storage in plants (stored in granules called plastids)
two forms of starch
1) amylose: simple
2) amylopectin: complex
used for storage in animals; similar to amylopectin but more extensively branched
major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells; cannot be broken down during digestion
main difference between starch and cellulose
in starch all hydroxyl groups (-OH) are located at the same postions whereas in cellulose, the hydroxyl group can change postions; diff. glycosidic linkages
carbohydrate used by antrhopods
linkages within lipids
ester linkages
unsaturated fat
has one or more double bonds
saturated fat
all single bonds, saturated with hydrogens
an alcohol with three carbons, each bearing a hydroxyl group
two fatty acids attached to glycerol along with a phosphate group; a (nonpolar/hydrophobic) fat with a (polar/hydrophilic) phospate head and some functional group
anthapathic molecule
has both a hydrophobic and hydorphilic domain
where is fat stored
adipose cells; fats can hold more thatn sugars and other carbs
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
steriod; precursor from which all other steroids are made
polymers of amino acids
amino acids
organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups; 20 total; all nonpolar amino acids do not have an oxygen in the -R group, groups containing an oxygen and no charge are polar, groups containing an oxygen with a negative charge are acidic and positve charge = basic
levels of protein structure
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
primary structure
line of amino acids
secondary structure
folding of primary structure due to hydrogen bonds (alpha helix and beta pleat sheet); H bonding
tertiary structure
alpha helix and beta pleated sheets coming together through reactions within the -R groups; hydrophobic interactions contributes to tertiary structure
overall protein structure; involves H bonds, disulfide bridge, ionic bonds hydrophobic interaction, and Van der Waals interactions
links amino acids
peptide bonds (covalent)
functional protein
one or more polypeptides precisely twisted, folded, and coiled into a molecule of unique shape
what determines confirmation
nasent confirmation
properly folded protein
changes in heat, pH, enzymatic activity, can cause changes in the proteins folding pattern
protein molecules that assits in the proper folding of other proteins
x-ray crystallography
used to determine a protein's 3-dimensional structure
nucleic acids (types)
deoxyribonucleic acids aka DNA and ribonucleic acids aka RNA
these molecules enable and organism to reproduce their complex components from one generation to the next
structure of nucleotides
nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, and a phosphate group
links nucleic acids
phosphodiester covalent bonds
consists of monomers called nucelotides
types of nitrogenous bases
purines and pyrimidines
nirtogenous base; 2 rings; only exsists as DNA; adenine and guanine
nitrogenous base; 3 rings; cytosine, thymine, and uracil (in RNA)
chagoffs rule
A% = T%
C% = G%
what roles other than just being DNA do nucleotides have
helping in protein synthesis
enzymatic proteins
function: selective acceleration of chemical reactions
ex: digestive enzymes catalyse the hydrolysis of the polymers in food
structural proteins
function: support
ex: insects and spiders use silk fibers to make their cocoons and webs; collagen and elasin rovide a fibrous framework in animal connective tissues
storage proteins
function: storage of amino acids
ex: plants have storage proteins in their seeds; ; Caesin, the protein of milk, is the major source of amino acids for baby mammals
transport proteins
function: transport of other substances ex: hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body
hormonal proteins
function: coordiation of an organisms activities
ex: Insulin helps regulate the concentration of sugar in the blood of vertabrates
receptor proteins
function: response of cell to chemical stimuli
ex: receptors built into the membrane of a nerve cell dectect chemical signals released by other nerve cells
contractile and motor proteins
function: movement
ex: actin and myosin are responsible for the movement of muscles
defensive proteins
function: protection against disease
ex: antibodies combat bacteria and viruses
hydrophobic interactions
contributes to tertiary structure; occurs while a polypeptide folds into its functions conformation; when amino acids with hydrophobic (nonpolar) side chains end up clustered at the core of the protein and out of contact with the water; caused by water molecules excluding nonpolar substances and forming hydorgen bonds with each other and hydrophilic parts of the protein.
disulfide bridges
covalent bond; reinforces conformation of a protein; form where two cysteine monomers, amino acids with sulhydryl groups, are brought close together by the folding of the protein and the sulfurs from each molecule bond to each other
prokaryotic cells
bacteria and archaea; lack membrane around nucleus as well as organelles.
parts of a prokaryotic cell
plasma membrane, nucleiod, ribosomes, and cytosol
some have pili, capsule, and/or flagella
eukaryotic cell
has a nucleus bounded by a membraneous nuclear envelope, and organelles.
plasma membrane
selective barriar; semipermeble; allowing passage for oxygen, carbon, and nutrients. small polar molecules w/overall nuetral charge impedes charged ions and.
semifluid substance in which organelles are found
bacterical chromosome (nucleoid)
DNA; no nuclear envelope
animals. plants, and bacteria; made up a a lg. and small subunit (ribosomal RNA and protein); cite of protein synthesis
plants and animals; contains most of the genes in a eukaryotic cell
nuclear lamina
netlike array of potein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
makes RNA along w/ proteins
made of chromatin (compacted DNA) located within nucleus
free ribosomes
synthesizes proteins in cytoplasm or cytosol
bound ribosomes
attached to the ER; proteins sythesized here to be secreted
endomembrane system
animals and plants; consists of plasma membrane nuclear enveloe, ER, golgi, lysosomes, and vacuoles
membraneous tubules and sacs
putting compounds together
breaks down compounds
endoplamic reticulum (ER)
extensive network of membranes; continos with nuclear envelope
smooth ER
makes oils, phopholipids, steroids; detoxifies drugsl plentiful in liverl stores calcium ions
rough ER
has ribosomes; makes proteins and transports them to Golgi bodies
golgo apparatus
modifies protein products; ships them off to other destinations
cell recycles its own materials; lysosome breaking down damaged organelle
cis face
part of the golgi; next by the ER; recieves proteins
trans face
part of the golgi; where protein is packaged out of golgi; gives rise to vesicles
transport vesicles
vesicles in transit from one part of cell to another
proteins that have carbohydrate covalently bonded to them
animals; digest macromolecules by phagocytosis; optimal pH of 5; maintains pH of cell by taking in excess hydrogen cations; burts to kill cell
lysosomes digest (hydrolyze) materials taken into cell and recycle intracellular materials
food vacuoles
fuse with lysosomes to break down macromolecules, formed by phagocytosis
contractile vacuoles
pumps out excess H2O to maintain salt concentration
central vacuoles
plants; energy storage, plant growth (enlarges when water is absorbed) becoming turgid
when a plant is filled with H2O
plants; selective membrane; encloses the cetral vacuole (which contains cell sap);
animals and plants; location of cellular respiration (contains DNA and ribosomes)
Inner membrane (cristae)
phospholipid layer of mitochondria; folds in on itself giving more surface areaand increasing energy yield
mitochondrial matrix
contains enzymes necessary to catalize reactions of Krebs cycle
plants; energy processing; two membranes; has ribosomes and DNA; semiatonomous; contains pigment chlorophyll; related to plastids (granuels w/in cellular structures which store starch)
thylakoid membrane
location of chlorophyll pigment; where light synthesis begins
liquid in chloroplasts, has DNA and ribosomes
colorless; stores amylase
have pigment for fruit and flowers
stack of thylakoids
related to respiration; breaksdown fatty acids; imports proteins from cytosol; bound by single membrane; transfers H2O to create H2O2; detoxifies alcohol; grows by collecting proteins, cytosol, and lipids
animals and plants; regulates biochemical activities; network inside a cell for substances to travel; mechanical and structural support; involved in motility through interaction w/motor proteins.
3 components: microtubles, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
pt, of cytoskeleton; thickest fibers; found in cytoplasm; hollow rods; walls are made from tubulin; grow from centrosomes; maintain cell shape through compression resisting girders
microtubule organizing center
animals; where microtubules are assembled
specialized arrangements (doublets) of microtubules; locomoter appendeges; flagella are longer and move in the same direction of the axis; cillia are shorter and move perpendicular to the axis
microfilaments (actin)
thinnest; responsible of muscle cell contraction, involves pushing actin towards myosin; maintains shape through tension baring elements
intermediate filaments
proteins put in cables (ie: carotin); more permanent (microtubules/filaments can break apart and chang as cell changes); important in maintaining shape of cell and repositionign organelles
motor protein b/t doublets made of several polypeptides (which hold doublets together)
proteins built into plasma membrane
cell wall
bacteria and plants; thick for protection; prevents excessive uptake of H2O; composed of cellulose; thin primary wall, midddle lamena (rich in the polysacch. pectin);
how does the cell wall harden
1- secreting hardening substances in the middle layer. 2- adding a secondary wall
extracellular matrix (ECM)
mainly glycoproteins; collagen; forms strong fibers outside cell; proteins called integrins help pass down signals; can make a change
plants; intrecellular junction; perforated channels within cell wallsl cytosol passes through and connects the chemical enbironment of adjacent cells, unifying plant into one living continuum. H2O and small solutes can pass freely from cell to cell and specific proteins and macromolecules reach plasmodesmata by moving along fibers of the cytoskeleton
tight junctions
animals;intracellular junction; prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across a layer of epithelial cells; caused by membranes of neighboring cells packed tightly and bound by specific proteins
animals; intracellular junction; aka anchoring junction; fasten cells together into strong sheets; intermidiate filaments make of sturdy keratin proteins anchor desmosomes in the cytoplasm
gap junctions
animals; intracellular junction; aka comunicating junction; provides cytoplasmic channels from one cell to adjacent cell; consist of special membrane proteins that surround pore through which ions, sugars, amino acids, and other small molecules may pass; necessary for communication between cells
amphipathic molecule
phospholipid; has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
6 major functions of membrane proteins
transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining, and attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM)
a protein ca have a hydrophilic channed across the membrane that is selective for a particular solute. or protein can shuttle proteins from one side to another by changing shape. (sometimes ATP is hydrolyzed for energy) ;can create a hydrophilic tunnel
enzymatic activity
several enzymes in a membrane are organized as a team that carries out sequential steps of a metabolic pathway
signal transduction
protein may have a binding site (requiring a certain hormone etc) and the signal can cause a conformational change in the protein (receptor) which relays the message to the cell
cell-cell recognition
some glyconproteins serve as identification tags that are specifically recognized by other cells; cells ability to recognize one type of neighboring cell from another
intercellular joining
membrane proteins of adjacent cells may hook together in various kinds of junctions
attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM)
microfilaments or other elements of the cytodkeleton may be bonded to membrane proteins which can coordinate extracellular and intracellular changes
permeability of the lipid bilayer
hydrophobic (nonpolar) molecules (ie: hydrocarbons, CO2, and O2) can dissolve in the loped bilayer and cross it with ease. However, the hydrophobic core of the membrane impedes the direct passage of ions and polar molecules (hydrophilic) through the membrane
channel proteins that help with the passage of H2O through the membrane
Transport types
diffusion, passive, and active
substance moves from an area of higher concentration to one of less concentration
H2O moving from an area with lower solute concentration to one with higher solute concentration
passive transport
diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane; cell doesn't have to expend energy
ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose H2O
concentrations within and outside the cell are the same
when the environment has a greater concentration of solute than the cell the environment is hypertonic to the cell and H2O leaves the cell
when the environment has lower solute concentration than the cell the environment is hypotonic to the cell and water wants to come inside the cell
control of water balance
describe animal and plant cells when placed in a hypotonic solution
animal - lysed
plant - turgid
describe animal and plant cells when placed in an isotonic solution
animal - normal
plant - flaccid
describe animal and plant cells when placed in a hypertonic solution
animal - shriveled
plant - plasmolyzed
plant loses so much water that it wilts; plasma membrane of plant cells pulls away form the cell wall
facilitated diffusion
molecules diffuse passively with the help of transport proteins
ion channels
gated; stimulus (electrical or chemical) causes them to open/close
active transport
uses energy to go against gradient
sodium potassium pump
ex of active transport; uses 3 Na ions to facilitate 2 K ions; requires phosphorylation of ATP
electrical potential energy
membrane potential
voltage across membrane; avg = -50 to -200 millivolts
electrochemical gradient
combination of chemical and electrical forces acting on an ion
electrogenic pump
transport protein that generates voltage across membrane
proton pump
actively transports H+ ions out of cel
when an ATP powered pump indirectly drives the active transport of solutes other than the specific solute its meant to transport
general term for any molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of other molecules
when the cell secretes macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane
when the cell takes macromolecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane
types of endocytosis
phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor mediated endocytosis
cell engulfs particle, create vacuole which fuses with lysosome containing hydrolytic enzymes
cell collects small amounts of extracellular fluid, tiny vesicles transport the molecules dissolved in the fluid
receptor-mediated endocytosis
enables the cell to aquire bulk quantities of specific substances;extracellular substances bind to specific receptors embedded in the protein and exposed to the extracellular fluid. a coated pit forms a vesicle containing the substance and after ingestion, the receptors are recycled back to the membrance by vesicles
what are the 7 properties of life
order, evolutionary adaptation, response to the environment, regulation, energy processing, growth and development, and reproduction