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106 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What form of energy is found in the food we eat?
Foods contain chemical energy
What form of energy is used to transmit messages from one part of the body to another?
Electrical energy is the energy used by nerve cells to transmit messages in the body
What type of energy is available when we are still? When we are exercising?
Potential Energy (PE) is available when we are still.
Kinetic Energy (KE) when we are exercising
matter
the "stuff" of the universe

anything that has mass and takes up space
states of matter
matter exists in solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Solid - like bones and teeth, have definite shape and volume.
Liquids - blood plasma have a definite volume
Gases - have neither a definite shape or volume. (air we breathe)
Name the two types of energy
Kinetic Energy (KE) - Energy in action

Potential Energy (PE) - stored energy
Name the 4 forms of energy
Chemical Energy
Electrical Energy
Mechanical Energy
Radiant Energy
Chemical Energy
Form of Energy

pertain to the way atoms interact with one another (bonding behavior)
Electrical Energy
Form of Energy

movement of charged particles
Mechanical Energy
Form of Energy

Energy directly involved in moving matter. When you ride a bike, your legs provide the mechanical energy that moves the pedals
Radiant Energy
Form of Energy

Energy that travel in waves
(visible light, infrared waves, radio waves, ultraviolet waves and x-rays)
Atoms
more or less identical building blocks for each element
elements
unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods
atomic symbols
one or two letter chemical shorthand for each element
What is inside the atomic structure?
1. nucleus
a. protons
b. neutrons
2. electrons
nucleus
Atomic Structure

have no charge (neutral) and a mass of one atomic mass unit (amu/atomic mass unit)
protons
Atomic Structure

(p+) positive electrical charge and a mass of 1 amu
neutrons
Atomic Structure

(n0) neutral charge and a mass of 1 amu

neutrons and protons have the same mass
electrons / electron cloud
Atomic Structure

negative chage and 1/2000 the mass of a proton (0 amu)

electrons are found orbing the nucleus
What two elements besides H and N make up the bulk of living matter?
Carbon and Oxygen help to make up the bulk of living matter
An element has a mass of 207 and has 125 neutrons in its nucleus. How many protons and electrons does it have and where are they located?
82 protons in its nucleus and 82 electrons in its orbitals
How do the terms atomic mass and atomic weight differ?
Atomic mass indicates the sum of the protons and nuetrons in a given atom's nucleus. Atomic weight indicates the average mass of all the isotopes of a given element
What is the meaning of the term "molecule"?
A molecule is 2 or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Why is sodium chloride (NaCl) considered a compund, but oxygen gas is not?
a compound is formed when two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bond together, as in NaCl. Oxygen gas is 2 oxygen atoms bonded together
Blood contains a liquid component and living cells? Would be classified as a compound or a mixture?
Blood is a misture b/c its components are not changed by their combination and they can be separated by physical means
atomic number
equal to the number of protons
atomic mass
equal to the mass of the protons and neutrons

number of protons + number of neutrons
isotopes
atoms with same number of protons but different number of neutrons
atomic weight
average of the mass number of all isotopes

(decimal in box, round off to nears whole #)
radioisotopes
atoms that under spontaneous decay called radioactivity/nucleus is unstable
half-lives
(half-life) time required for half of a given amount of the isotope to decay (lose radiation)

range = fractions of a second to billions of years of half-life
element X - half-life = 50 years

0 yrs 100g --> 50yrs 50g --> 50yrs 25g --> etc.
Name the three types of radioactive emissions
alpha particles
beta particles
gamma rays
alpha particles
Type of Radioactive emissions

emitted by the nucleus of large radioactive atoms (ex: uranium)

least dangerous
beta particles
Type of Radioactive emissions

released by radioisotopes
gamma rays
Type of Radioactive emissions

very high energy electromagnetic waves, comparable to x-rays

most dangerous
tracers
When you use radioactive, they are called tracers.
weakly radioactive isotopes with short half-lives used to check the structural and function state of an organ.

Can be incorporated into specific compounds normally found within the body
Molecules and Compounds
Molecule - two or more attoms held together by chemical bonds (H2O, NaCl, O2)

Compounds - Two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bonded together (H2O, NaCl, C6H12O6)

*All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds
Mixtures
2 or more components physically intermixed/mingled (not chemically bonded)
3 basic types:
solutions
colloids
suspensions
Solutions
Basic Type of Mixture

Solutions - homogeneous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids or solids

3 types of solutions:
Solvent
Solute
Expressing the concentration of solutions
Solvent
Basic type of Solutions

substances present in greatest amount. Substance DOING the dissolving (water)
Solute
Basic type of Solutions

Substance(s) present in smaller amount
Substance BEING dissolved
Colloids
Type of mixture

(emulsions) heterogeneous mixtures. Whose solutes do not settle out

All liquids inside a cell is a colloid
Suspensions
Type of mixture

heterogeneous mixtures with visible solutes that tend to settle out
Ex: Blood
Distinguish mixtures from compounds
no chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture. The properties of atoms and molecules are not changed when they become part of a mixture
Name the roles of electrons in chemical bonding
1. Electron Shells
2. Energy Levels
3. Filling of electron shells
a. valence
b. rule of eight
4. chemically inert elements
5. chemically active elements
electron shells

energy levels
Role of electrons in chemical bonding
terms used interchangeably

Electrons forming the electron cloud around the nucleus of an atom occupy regions of space

each electron shell represents a different energy level because this prompts you to think of electrons as particles with a certain amount of PE
Filling of electron shell
Role of electrons in chemical bonding

Each electron shell can hold a specific number of electrons.
Shell 1 - the shell immediately surrounding the nucleus, accomodates only 2 electrons.
Shell 2 - Holds maximum of 8 electrons
Shell 3 - holds maximum of 18 electrons
valence
Role of electrons in chemical bonding (Filling of electron shell)

outermost energy level containing chemically active electrons
rule of eight
Role of electrons in chemical bonding (Filling of electron shell)

except for the first shell which is full with 2 electrons, atoms interact in a manner to have 8 electrons in their valence shell
chemically inert elements
Role of electrons in chemical bonding

When the outermost energy level of an atom is filled to capacity or contains 8 electrons, the atom is stable. Such atoms are chemically inert, unreactive.
Helium (He)
Neon (Ne)
Types of chemical bonds
1. Ionic Bonds
a. Ions
b. Anions
c. Cations
2. Covalent Bonds
a. Sharing of electrons
b. Multiple covalent bonds
c. Nonpolar covalent bonds
Polar covalent molecules
3. Hydrogen bonds
a. surface tension
b. intramolecular bonds
ionic bonds
Types of chemical bonds

chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons form one atom to the other
ions
Types of chemical bonds - Ionic bond

charged atoms resulting from the gain or loss of electons
anions
Types of chemical bonds - Ionic bond

gained one or more electrons
cations
Types of chemical bonds - Ionic bond

lost one or more electron
(think of the "t" in "cation" as a + sign)
Name examples of ionic bonds.
Table salt, sodium chloride (NaCl)
Covalent Bonds
Types of chemical bonds

Formed by sharing of 2 or more electrons
Sharing of electrons (covalent bonds)
Types of chemical bonds - covalent bonds

Produces Molecules.
The shared electron pair orbits around the molecule as a whole, satisfying the stability needs of each atom.
Multiple covanent bonds
Types of chemical bonds - covanet bond

When 2 atoms share one pair of electrons, a single covalent bond is formed
Double - atoms share 2 electrons
Triple - atoms share 3 electrons
Nonpolar Covalent molecules
Types of chemical bonds - covanet bond

electrons shared equally between atoms
Polar Covalent molecules

Electronegativity
Types of chemical bonds - covanet bond


unequal sharing of electrons
Electronegativity - (gain electrons) atoms with 6 or 7 valence shell electrons
Hydrogen Bonds
Types of chemical bonds

Too weak to bind atoms together. Common in dipole, such as water

a. surface tension
b. intramolecular bonds
Surface Tension

Intramolecular bonds

(Hydrogen bonds)
Types of chemical bonds - hydrogen bond

Surface tension - responsible for surface tension in water

intramolecular bonds - important between molecules
Chemical Reactive elements
reactive elements do not have their outermost energy level fully occupied by 8 electrons.

Hydrogren only needs 2 to be stable
Name the 3 types of chemical equations
Chemical Reactions

1. Reactants - The number and kinds of reacting substances
2. Products - chemical compsition of the product and in balanced equations, the relative proportion of each reactant and product.
3. Molecular Formula - indicates the number of atoms in a molecule of a substances
chemical Equations
Chemical Reactions

Write chemical reactions in symbolic form.
Ex: indicate the joining of 2 hydrogen atoms to form hydrogen gas a H + H --> H2 (hydrogen gas)
H + H (reactant)
H2 (product)
What does ATP stand for?
adenosine triphosphate
What does ADP stand for?
adenosine diphosphate
Patterns of chemical Reactions
1. Synthesis (Combination) Reaction - Always involves bond formation A + B --> AB
2. Decomposition Reaction - molecules are broken down into smaller molecules AB --> A + B
3. Exchange (Displacement) Reaction - bonds are both made and broken AB + C --> AC + B
4. Oxidation Reduction Reaction - Reactants losing electrons are electron donors and are oxidized. Reactants taking up electrons are electron acceptors and become reduced
energy flow in chemical reactions
Patterns of Chemical Reactions

endergonic reactions - products of energy absorbing, reactions whose products contain more PE than did its reactants.
Exergonic reactions - reactions that release energy
Reversibility of chemical reactions
Patterns of Chemical Reactions

All chemical reactions are theoretically reversible
A + B --> AB
AB --> A + B
chemical equilibrium
if neither a forward nor reverse reaction is dominant
Name the 4 Factors Influencing the rate of chemical reactions
1. Temperature - Chemical reactions proceed quicker at higher temps.
2. Particle Size - The smaller the particle, the faster the chemical reaction
3. Concentration - higher reacting particle
4. catalysts - Increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed
Inorganic Compounds
1. Water
2. salts
3. acids and bases
Water
Inorganic Compound

Most important in living material. Makes up 60-80% of the volume of most living cells.
High Heat Capacity
2. High heat of vaporization (sweat)
3. Poloarity/Solvent Properties - important consequences, electrolytes, hydrophobic molecules
4. Reactivity - water is an important reactant in chemical reactions (digestion)
5. Cushioning - forming a resistent cushion around certain body organs
Salts
Inorganic Compound

Ionic compound (all ions are electrolytes). The most plentiful salts are the calcium phosphates that make bones and teeth hard
Acids and Bases
Inorganic Compound

Electrolytes. They ionize and dissociate in water and can conduct an electrical current.
1. Acid - when acides dissovr in water, they release hydrogen ions (protons) and anions
2. Base - take up hydrogen ions in detectable amounts
3. pH: acid-base concentration - The more hydrogen ions in a solution, the more acidic the solution is.
4. Neutralization - when acids and bases mix - they react with each other to form water and salt
5. Buffers - homeostatis of acid-base balance is carefully regulated by the kidneys and lungs
pH unit
relative concentration of hydrogen ions in various body fluids is measured in concentration units
carbohydrates
group of molecules that includes surgars and starches, represent 1-2% of cell mass.

Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and generally the hydrogen and oxygen atom occur in the same 2:1 ratio as in water
A carbohydrate can be classified according to size and solubility - The larger the carbohydrate molecule, the less soluble it is in water.
Name the 3 types:
1. Monosaccharides
2. Disaccharide
3. Plysaccharides
Monosaccharides
Type of carbohydrate

"one sugar" or "simple sugars" - monomers or building blocks.
Single-chain or single-ring structures containing from 3 to 7 ccarbon atoms
Disaccharide
Type of carbohydrate

"Two sugars" or "double sugar" - is formed when 2 monosaccharides are joined by deydration synthesis.
Disaccharide are too large to pass through cell membranes, so they must be digested to their simple sugar units to be absorbed from the digestive tract into the blood
Polysaccharides
Type of carbohydrate

"Many sugars" are polymers of simple sugars linked together by dehydration synthesis. Storage products. Lack the sweetness of the simple and double sugars
Glycogen
storage carbohydrates of animal tissues, is stored primarily in skeletal muscle and liver cells
Carbohydrate Functions
major functions in the body is to provide a ready, easily used source of cellular fuel, only small amounts of carbohydrates are used for structural purposes. Others are attached to external surfaces of cells where they act as "road signs" to guide cellular interactions
Lipids
Insoluble in water but dissolve readily in other lipids and in organic solvents (alcohol)

Like carbohydrates, lipids contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Phosphorus is found in some of the complex lipids.
Lipids include what?
Neutral Fats
Phospholipids
Steroids
Neutral Fats or Triglycerides
Types of lipids

Fats when solid
Oil when liquid

composed of 2 types of building blocks: fatty acids and glycerol, in a 3:1 ratio of fatty acids to glycerol. Fatty acids are linear chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms with an organic acid ground at one end.

Found mainly beneath the skin, insulating the deep body tissue from heat loss
Phospholipids
Types of lipids

modified triglycerides. Diglycerides with a phosphorus-containing group & 2, fatty acid chains.
Chief material for building cellular membranes
Steroids
Types of lipids

Flat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings.
Like triglycerides, steroids are fat soluble and contain little oxygen.
Single most important molecule in our steroid chemistry is cholesterol
Name the organic compounds
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Proteins
Organic Compound

composed 10-30% of cell mass and is the basic structure material of the body.

Not all proteins are construction materials. Many play roles in cell function.
Contains carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen and many contain sulfur and phosphorus as well
Amino Acids and Peptide Bonds
Type of protein

Peptide bonds - arrangement of linked atoms
Name the structural levels of proteins
Primary Level
Secondary Level
Tertiary Level
Quaternary level
Primary Level
Structural levels of proteins

Linear sequence of amino acids, composed of polypeptide chain. Resembles a strand of amino acid "beads", is the backbone of the protein molecule
Secondary Level
Structural levels of proteins

Proteins twist or bend upon themselves to form a complex structure.
Alpha -helix resembles a slinky toy or the coils of the telephone cord.

Beta -pleated - do not coil, but are linked side by side to form ribbonlike structures
Tertiary Level
Structural levels of proteins

Achieved when alpha -helix or beta -pleasted regions of the polypeptide chain fold upon one another to form a compact ball-like molecule
quaternary level
Structural levels of proteins

When 2 or more polypeptide chains aggregate in a regular manner to form a complex protein
Fibrous and Globular Proteins
Fibrous - (structural proteins) extended and strandlike. Insoluble in water - qualities for providing mechanical support and strength to the body tissue

Globular - (Functional proteins) compact, spherical proteins. Water soluble, chemically active molecules and they play crucial roles in all biological processes (immunities, growth and development)
Protein Denaturation
Fibrous proteins are stable, globular is not.
Hydrogen bonds begin to break when the pH drops or the temperature rises above normal levels, causing proteins to unfold and lose their shape call denatured.
Disruption is reversible
Enzymes and Enzyme Activity
Enzymes are globular proteins that act as biological catalysts.
Can be thought of as a chemical traffic cops that keep our metabolic pathways flowing.
Enzymes incrase the speed of chemical reactions to occur between molecules
cofactors
Enzymes and Enzyme activity

depending on the enzyme, the cofactor may be an ion of a metal element such as copper or iron or an organic molecule needed to assist the reaction in some way
activation energy
Enzymes and Enzyme activity

every chemical reaction requires that a certain amount of energy be absorbed to prime the reaction. Its the amount of energy needed to break bonds of the reactants so they can rearrange themselves and become the product
Major elements of the human body
CHON

Carbon (C)
Hydrogren (H)
Oxygen (O)
Nitrogen (N)
lesser and trace elements of the human body
- Lesser elements make up 3.9% of the body and include:
Calcium (Ca)
Phosphorus (P)
Potassium (K)
Sulfer (S)
Sodium (Na)
Chlorine (Cl)
Magnesium (Mg)
Iodine (I)
Iron (Fe)
Chemical Bonds
Energy levels, surround the nucleus of an atom

-Bonds are formed using the electrons in the outermost energy level

- Valnce shell - outermost energy level containing chemically active electrons

Octet rule - 8 electrons in outter layer to make it stable. They all want 8