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122 Cards in this Set

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Regarding acids and bases:
-acids will increase the Ph of a solution
-bases will decrease the pH of a solution
-acids will accept hydrogen ions in a solution
-bases will accept hydrogen ions in a solution
-bases will accept hydrogen ions in a solution
A blood pH of 7.6 is:
-indicative of acidosis
-indicative of alkalosis
-in the normal physiological range
-indicates effective buffering by the bicarbonate/carbonic acid system
-indicative of alkalosis
Which of the following is NOT true of phospholipids?
-They're glycolipids originally isolated from the prostate gland
-They are major components of the cell membrane
-They have a polar head and nonpolar tail
-They are amphipathic molecules
-They're glycolipids originally isolated from the prostate gland
____________ mg/100 ml is the approximate normal range of blood glucose concentration after fasting.
0 to 80
50 to 150
75 to 110
90 to 120
75 to 110
When a scientist performs measurements in an experiment and does not know if the subject is part of the experimental or the control group, it is known as a _________ measurement.
blind
qualitative
null
statistical
blind
Homeostasis is best thought of as being a state of
constant fluctuation.
stasis.
dynamic constancy.
inconsistency.
dynamic constancy.
________________ homeostatic regulatory mechanisms are "built-in" to the organs being regulated.
Intrinsic
Extrinsic
Exothermic
Passive
Intrinsic
Which of the following is NOT an example of positive feedback?
LH surge
labor contractions
blood glucose maintenance
blood clotting
blood glucose maintenance
The main body compartment that is inside cells is the ____ compartment.
extracellular
interstitial
intercellular
intracellular
intracellular
The endocrine regulation of blood glucose concentration is an example of a(n)
antagonistic effector.
positive feedback loop.
negative feedback loop.
Both antagonistic effector and negative feedback loop are correct.
Both antagonistic effector and negative feedback loop are correct.
Keratinized epithelium
has living cells in all layers.
is a moist membrane.
allows water to diffuse through.
is a dry, mostly dead membrane.
is a dry, mostly dead membrane.
10. Clusters of cells in exocrine glands are termed
goblet cells.
acini (acinar) cells.
islet cells.
reticular cells.
acini (acinar) cells.
1. The study of how disease or injury alters physiological processes is termed
comparative physiology.
the scientific method.
pathophysiology.
anatomy.
pathophysiology.
decrease in mean arterial pressure is detected by
an effector.
an integrating center.
a sensor.
a chemical messenger.
sensor
3. It is NOT possible to determine whether the data collected in an experiment are different between the control and experimental groups unless the scientist employs the use of the mathematical tools of
algebra.
trigonometry.
statistics.
graphing.
Stats
Which organ system is primarily involved in regulation of blood volume and composition?
the urinary system
the digestive system
the circulatory system
the integumentary system
the urinary system
. ____________ trials maximize the number of test participants and include human participants of both sexes, different ethnic groups, and those who have health problems besides the one that the drug is designed to treat.
Phase I clinical
Phase II clinical
Phase III clinical
Phase IV clinical
Phase III clinical
6. Epithelial tissue will bleed profusely when cut.
True
False
b
The study of disease processes aids in the understanding of normal functions.
True
False
a
8. By affecting the diameter of cutaneous blood vessels, motor nerve fibers in the skin can regulate the rate of blood flow.
True
False
a
19. Intercalated discs would be found in muscles attached to the skeleton.
True
False
b
The nervous and immune systems are primarily involved in maintaining homeostasis.
True
False
b
A 0.5M glucose (molecular weight = 180g) contains ____________ grams of glucose per liter.
90
180
6.02 × 1023
360
90
___________ g of sucrose (molecular weight = 342g) would be added to 1L of water to produce a 2.5 Osm solution.
342
500
855
2.5
855
Simple diffusion is the net diffusion of a solvent.
True
False
b
Why are cells in body organs generally within 100 μm of a blood capillary?
to decrease mean diffusion time
to increase mean diffusion time
so that larger particles can diffuse more easily
a larger distance maximizes entropy
a
Which of the following cells do NOT normally have many aquaporins in their plasma membranes?
kidneys
lungs
salivary glands
skin
d
Edema will result if a person has an abnormally low concentration of plasma proteins.
True
False
a
(1)
7. What type of intravenous fluid would be given to reduce edema?
hypertonic
isotonic
hypotonic
a
Cerebral edema would be treated with a(an) ___________ intravenous solution of mannitol.
hypertonic
hypotonic
isotonic
a
Which of the following is NOT true of a person who is dehydrated?
plasma osmolality increases
hypothalamus stimulates release of ADH
ADH causes the kidneys to excrete water
increased osmolality causes thirst
c
Active transport proteins are often regulated by phosphorylation.
True
False
a
Hyperkalemia would ____________ the resting membrane potential of the cell.
increase
decrease
have no effect on
b
Interstitial fluid is made from blood plasma and returns to blood plasma.
True
False
a
. ________ are a class of glycoproteins that bind to components in the extracellular matrix thereby acting as adhesion molecules between cells and the matrix.
Glycocalyces
Aquaporins
Desmosomes
Integrins
d
Which of the following is NOT a function of integrins?
glue components of the matrix
communicate between the intracellular and extracellular compartments
allow diffusion to occur through the plasma membrane
establish cell polarity
c
What type of cell signaling occurs through the extracellular matrix to nearby target cells?
endocrine signaling
synaptic signaling
gap junctions
paracrine signaling
d
Where is the receptor for a nonpolar, lipid-soluble regulatory molecule?
embedded in the outer surface of the plasma membrane
embedded in the inner surface of the plasma membrane
in the cytoplasm or nucleus of the cell
All apply.
c
Where is the G-protein complex when a regulatory molecule is not bound to its receptor?
The alpha subunit is attached to the inner surface of the receptor.
The three subunits are together but not attached to the inner surface of the receptor.
The three subunits are together AND attached to the inner surface of the receptor.
The beta and gamma subunits are attached to the inner surface of the receptor.
c
. Which of the following is NOT true of cyclic AMP?
It is found on the outside of a plasma membrane.
It is a second messenger for polar regulatory molecules.
It is made from ATP.
It activates enzymes inside a cell to produce the desired effect.
a
Most cells have a resting membrane potential between
+60mV and -90mV.
-60mV and -90mV.
-65mV and -85mV.
+65mV and +90mV.
c
The Na+/K+ pump creates a ____________ charge inside the cell.
positive
negative
b
1. Each pair of hydrogens generated in glycolysis are used to
reduce 2 molecules of NAD.
oxidize 2 molecules of NAD.
reduce 2 molecules of FAD.
oxidize 2 molecules of FAD
a
Blood glucose concentrations can be maintained by hydrolysis of glycogen in the
liver.
skeletal muscle.
smooth muscle.
kidneys.
a
Sweet smelling breath may be the result of elevated ______________ in the blood.
glucose
fructose
acetone
cholesterol
c
To go through glycolysis, _________ ATP per glucose molecule must be "invested" in order to activate the glucose molecule.
one
two
three
four
b
Glycolysis would be inhibited by
a lack of oxygen.
an excess of ATP.
an excess of ADP.
None apply.
d
In newborns, _________ occurs in brown fat.
lipogenesis
thermogenesis
gluconeogenesis
biogenesis
b
What is the inadequate supply of blood to an organ called?
infarction
ischemia
necrosis
cramping
b
Anabolic reactions do NOT
utilize energy.
synthesize molecules within cells.
store energy.
release energy.
d
The ATP generated in the citric acid cycle
is produced directly from the 5th reaction.
is produced from the reduction of NAD.
comes from GTP.
comes from oxidative phosphorylation.
c
. ______________ reactions require energy to synthesize large molecules from small molecules.
Combustion
Catabolic
Anabolic
Decomposition
c
. ______________ cells normally produce ATP exclusively by anaerobic respiration metabolism.
Red blood
White blood
Skin
Nerve
a
The hydrolysis of triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol is called
lipogenesis.
lipolysis.
beta-oxidation.
deamination.
b
13. Each turn of the citric acid cycle produces
2 FADH2, 1 ATP, and 3 NADH.
1 FADH2, 1 ATP, and 3 NADH.
3 FADH2, 2 ATP, and 1 NADH.
1 FADH2, 3 ATP, and 2 NADH.
b
Through deamination and sometimes transamination reactions, amino acids may enter the aerobic respiration metabolic pathway at the level of
pyruvic acid.
acetyl CoA.
citric acid cycle.
All of these choices are correct.
d
Formation of the maximum number of acetyl CoA molecules from one glucose, produces ______________ molecules of carbon dioxide.
no
one
two
four
c
To form lactic acid from pyruvic acid it is necessary to have
NAD.
FAD.
NADH.
FADH.
c
The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of glucose started by glycolysis.
True
False
a
The Cori cycle involves formation of glucose made by gluconeogenesis in the liver from lactic acid produced by fermentation in skeletal muscles.
True
False
a
Cyanide is lethal because it blocks the oxidation of oxygen in the electron transport chain system.
True
False
b
Glucose 6-phosphate can diffuse out of a cell.
True
False
b
Regarding acids and bases,
acids will increase the pH of a solution.
bases will decrease the pH of a solution.
acids will accept hydrogen ions in a solution.
bases will accept hydrogen ions in a solution.
d
blood pH of 7.6 is
indicative of acidosis.
indicative of alkalosis.
in the normal physiological range.
indicates effective buffering by the bicarbonate/carbonic acid system.
b
Which of the following is NOT true of phospholipids?
They are glycolipids originally isolated from the prostate gland.
They are major components of the cell membrane.
They have a polar head and a nonpolar tail.
They are amphipathic molecules.
a
Phospholipid molecules will form aggregates called ______ when placed in water.
surfactants
ketone bodies
prostaglandins
micelles
d
The pH of a solution increases as the _______________ ion concentration decreases.
hydrogen
hydroxide
bicarbonate
sodium
a
What characteristic of phospholipids allows them to form the double layer seen in cell membranes?
They are amphipathic.
They are totally nonpolar.
They are soluble in water.
They are totally hydrophobic.
a
Peptide bonds are formed by the process of
ketosis.
hydrolysis.
dehydration synthesis.
aromatization.
c
The nitrogenous base adenine is a
purine.
pyrimidine.
steroid.
prostaglandin.
a
This group of organic compounds acts as surfactants:
carbohydrates
phospholipids
nucleic acids
prostaglandins
b
. The _______________ electrons are the outermost electrons of an atom.
kernel
valence
atomic
anion
b
Which of the following describes a trans-fat?
Has carbon-carbon single bonds.
Has carbon-carbon double bonds with hydrogens on opposite sides of the bonds.
Has carbon-carbon double bonds with hydrogens on the same side of the bonds.
The fatty acids form a bent chain.
b
Most of the water found in the body is in the
blood.
intracellular fluid compartment.
extracellular fluid compartment.
blood and extracellular fluid compartment.
b
An example of a monosaccharide is
maltose.
sucrose.
glucose.
glycogen.
c
An atom with 5 protons, 5 neutrons, and 6 electrons would have a net charge of
-1.
-2.
+1.
+2.
a
Bases will _______________ protons in a solution.
accept
donate
ignore
repel
a
The pH of a solution is directly proportional to the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution.
True
False
b
Unsaturated fatty acids contain more hydrogen atoms than saturated fatty acids of the same length.
True
False
b
A buffer has an acid component and a base component that can prevent drastic changes in pH.
True
False
a
Rapid, uncontrolled hydrolysis of body fats can result in ketoacidosis.
True
False
a
An element with 5 protons, 5 neutrons, and 5 electrons would have an atomic number of 15.
True
False
b
Phagocytosis differs from endocytosis in that with phagocytosis
the plasma membrane invaginates to produce a furrow that pinches off inside the cell.
the plasma membrane extends outwards with pseudopods to surround the substance.
specific membrane receptors bind to the molecules to be brought into the cell.
None apply.
b
______ molecules aid in the folding of a polypeptide chain into its tertiary structure.
Spliceosome
Ubiquitin
Centrosome
Chaperone
d
The folded inner membrane of a mitochondrion is called
rugae.
plicae.
cristae.
microvilli.
c
What process involves the destruction of worn-out organelles by lysosomes?
exocytosis
pinocytosis
autophagy
None apply.
c
Gene silencing may be accomplished by
removal of the gene.
methylation of cytosine bases in DNA.
crossing over.
genetic recombination.
b
Chromatin is comprised of _____________ and ___________.
phospholipids, DNA
DNA, protein
RNA, protein
DNA, RNA
b
What enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between the bases of DNA in preparation for replication?
DNA polymerase
DNA helicase
spliceosome
cyclin D
b
Chromosomes move to opposite poles in
anaphase.
metaphase.
prophase.
telophase.
a
Cells actively involved in secreting proteins would contain large numbers or quantities of
lysosomes.
peroxisomes.
granular (rough) endoplasmic reticulum.
agranular (smooth) endoplasmic reticulum.
c
Proteins that are partially embedded on one side of the plasma membrane are
integral proteins.
transport proteins.
peripheral proteins.
fluid proteins.
c
_____________ RNA has the function of bringing amino acids to the ribosome during translation.
Transfer
Messenger
Ribosomal
Nuclear
a
The process of gene expression occurs as
genetic transcription and genetic transduction.
genetic translation and genetic degradation.
genetic transcription and genetic translation.
genetic transduction and genetic degradation.
c
Cellular senescence may be prevented by
increased DNA polymerase activity.
increased telomerase activity.
increased RNA polymerase activity.
increased synthase activity.
b
What enzyme is needed for transcription?
spliceosomes
RNA polymerase
RNA promoter
DNA polymerase
b
Telomeres serve to
increase apoptosis.
cap the ends of DNA and protect it from damage.
break DNA and cause it to degrade.
cause replication of genes.
b
Growth due to an increase in cell number is called
hypertrophy.
hyperplasia.
atrophy.
dystrophy.
b
The process of tissue death in which cells swell, rupture their membranes, and burst is called
apoptosis.
phagocytosis.
necrosis.
transcytosis.
c
Cells synthesizing large quantities of proteins would have numerous nucleoli.
True
False
a
All mitochondria that an individual has came solely from the mother's fertilized egg cell.
True
False
a
Cells lacking lysosomes would be unable to undergo apoptosis.
True
False
a
During a chemical reaction, a catalyst increases the rate at which the reaction occurs.
True
False
a
Ribozymes are RNA molecules that act as
hormones.
cofactors.
enzymes.
inhibitors.
c
The model that explains how an enzyme and substrate fit together is the
enzyme-substrate model.
lock-and-key model.
conformational model.
None apply.
b
The model that describes how an enzyme can adjust its shape to fit the shape of the substrate is the
lock-and-key model.
enzyme-substrate model.
induced-fit model.
conformational model.
c
Enzymes are specific for a given substrate.
True
False
a
The level of protein structure primarily involved in determining enzyme activity is the
primary structure.
secondary structure.
tertiary structure.
quaternary structure.
c
The MM isoenzyme of creatine phosphokinase is found in diseased skeletal muscle.
True
False
a
The enzyme with the lowest pH optimum is
acid phosphatase.
lipase.
monoamine oxidase.
pepsin.
d
______________ are inactive forms of digestive enzymes.
Cofactors
Coenzymes
Zymogens
Both cofactors and zymogens are correct
c
When an enzyme catalyzes a chemical reaction
the enzyme binds to the substrate's active site.
the enzyme's active site binds the product.
amino acids in the substrate allow for interaction with the product.
amino acids in the enzyme's active site interact with substrate molecules.
d
End-product inhibition usually involves allosteric inhibition of an enzyme.
True
False
a
Metal ions such as magnesium or calcium can serve as enzyme
coenzymes.
ribozymes.
substrates.
cofactors.
d
gy transformations result in a(n) ______________ in entropy.
increase
decrease
no change
a
The flow of energy in living systems is termed
entropy.
enthalpy.
bioenergetics.
bioluminescence.
c
Another name for the first law of thermodynamics is the law of conservation of energy.
True
False
a
Free energy is ______________ when exergonic reactions proceed.
increased
decreased
unchanged
b
______________ is the universal energy carrier.
Glucose
ATP
ADP
GTP
b
A reducing agent donates electrons to a molecule.
True
False
a
Chemically reduced FAD has __________ extra hydrogen atom(s) bound to it.
one
two
three
no
b
During oxidation, a molecule or atom
gains protons.
loses protons.
gains electrons.
loses electrons.
d