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23 Cards in this Set

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Describe Dehydration synthesis and give two examples of it.
Dehydration synthesis "literally " to form by removing water". In dehydration synthesis, a hydrogen ion (H+) is removed from one subunit and a hydroxyl group (OH-) is removed from a second subunit, creating openings in the outer electron shells of the two sub units. share electrons, creating a covalent bond that links them. Free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions then combine to from a molecule of water. (h2o)
This type of reaction is used as a basis for the making of many important polymers for example: nylon, polyester and other condensation polymers and various epoxies.
Describe Hydrolysis and give to examples
hydrolysis (meaning "to break apart with water") splits the molecule back into its original subunits.
Why is it (very specially) that humans can digest starch and glycogen, but not cellulose? In other words, why is cellulose "fiber" i the diet?
The Orientation of bonds between subunits is different in the two polysaccharides. In cellulose, every other glucose is "upside down" This bond orientation prevents animals' digestive enzymes from attacking the bonds between glucose subunits. Certain microbes, however, synthesize enzymes that can break these bonds, and can consume cellulose as food. But for the most part cellulose is fiber,material that passes undigested through the digestive tract. While it is valuable in preventing constipation we don't derive any nutrients from it.
Why do animals store most energy as fats rather than proteins or as carbohydrates?
for long-term energy storage,fats store the same amount of energy with less weight than do carbohydrates, fat is an efficient way for animals to store energy.
What do the terms "hydrophobic" and "hydrophilic" mean?
"hydrophobic" afraid of water, "hydrophilic" water loving.
What are Carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates essentially translates to "Carbon+ water= The Sugars+ starches".
What are the four classes of organic Macromolecules/Polymers?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids
What are the Carbohydrates Functions?
Carbohydrates function as energy source through glucose, energy storage through glycogen and starch, and structural cellulose makes up the plant cell walls.
What are the three groups of carbohydrates?
Mono,Di and Polysaccharides
What are the functions of Polysaccharides?
Polysaccharides function as energy storage through starch and glycogen and structure through cellulose and chitin
What are lipids?
Lipids contain a large region composed almost entirely of hydrogen and carbon bonds. With non-polar carbon-carbon bonds, these nonpolar regions make lipids hydrophobic and insoluble in water. Lipids also work as energy-storage molecules. lipids are classified into three major groups oils,fats and waxes. these only contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen secondly phospholipids contain phosphorus and nitrogen.
What are some characteristics of lipids?
A very diverse group chemically, Mostly non-polar thus non saluable in water contain C,H and O, but a lot less O than carbohydrates.
what are some functions of lipids?
Energy storage through fats and oils, Structural phospholipids,waxes and cholesterol, Hormones steroid hormones, protection lipids are water proof, they also insulate from temperature extremes and cushion the organs.
What is an organic compound?
Carbon containing molecule made by a living thing that usually contains carbon chain or rings.
Why does the body turn excess carbohydrate into fats? or why does the body store most energy as fats?
Fats yield a much more energy per gram than proteins or carbohydrates.
fats 9.1
pro 4.1
carbs 4.1
What is an essential amino acid?
An essential amino acid are the eleven of the twenty amino acids that can not be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet.
What are the four macromolecules specifically mentioned in chapter 3?
Lipids, Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates, Proteins.
Describe primary level of protein organization
the primary structure is the sequence of amino acids that make up the protein
Describe the secondary structure of protein organization
usually maintained by hydrogen bonds, which shape this helix
Describe the tertiary structure of protein organization
Folding of the helix resluts from hydrogen bonds with surrounding water molecules and disulfide bridges between cysteine amino acids
What happens to a protein when it becomes denatured, and how does this happen?
When the secondary and tertiary structures of a protein are altered the protein is said to be denatured, and it will no longer perform it's function.
What are some of the, incredibly varied, functions of proteins
Many of an organisms proteins are enzymes that guide almost all chemical reactions that occur inside cell.

Collagen in skin, Keratin in hair nails and horns. Catalyzing reactions
What are the building blocks for the four classes of macromolecules
Lipids- Fatty Acids
Nucleic Acids- Nucleotides
Carbohydrates- CHO or 1:2:1
Proteins: Amino Acids