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13 Cards in this Set

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What are the six elements that make up the majority of weight of living tissue?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Calcium or more commonly referred to as "CHONPCa"
Where are each of the sub particles in the atom?
What Charges do each of the sub particles in the atom contain?
Proton(positive) Neutron(neutral)
Electron (negative)
How do the masses of protons,neutrons and electrons compare?
protons are only about 99.86% as massive as neutrons while electrons are only about 0.054% as massive as neutrons. While relative masses are nice if you want to compare protons, neutrons and electrons to one another, it doesn't tell you what the actual masses of these particles are.
explain how and why an electrically neutral atom becomes an ion, and give an example.
an electrically neutral atom may have an almost empty outer-most shell, these atoms can become stable by loosing or gaining electrons. Atoms that have gained or lost electrons, altering the balance between protons and electrons are charged. These charged atoms are called "Ions". an example of this would be a sodium atom and a chlorine atom, sodium contains 1 electron in it's outer-most shell while chlorine contains seven. Sodium can become stable by losing an electron and chlorine can become stable by gaining an electron. Sodium becomes a positively charged Ion while Chlorine becomes a negatively charged Ion. These two Ion's are held together by Ionic bonds. Opposites attract in this case.
Opposite, Gaining And Loosing.
explain how covalent bonds form
A hydrogen atom can become reasonably stable if it shares its single electron with another hydrogen atom, forming a molecule of hydrogen gas, H-2. Because the two hydrogen atoms are identical, neither nucleus can exert more attraction and capture the others electron. So the two electrons orbit around both nuclei for equal amounts of time, forming a single covalent bond. Each atom behaves almost as if it had two electrons in its shell.
a covalent bond is the act of an atom with a partially full outer-most electron shell becoming stable.
explain how hydrogen bonds form
An electronical attraction between a partially positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and a partially negative atom of another molecule (usually n or o)
what is the difference between polar and non-polar covalent bonds?
Polar- electrons are shared unequally between atoms to give a molecule a charged end. "o-h"
Non-polar electrons are shared equally between atoms. ex: "c-h"
how do the numbers of the pH scale correspond to acidity or basicity?
On a scale from 0 to 14, zero being the most acidic to 14 very basic. Each unit of change on the scale represents a tenfold change in the concentration of hydrogen ions.
give several examples of each: acids and bases
acids: 1 molar hydrochloric acid, stomach acid, lime juice, lemon juice beer, coffe, tea
bases: oven cleaner, molar sodium hydrocide washing soda, baking soda, sea water
what does a buffer do in a biological system?
a buffer is a compound that tends to maintain a solution at a constant pH by accepting or releasing H+ in response to small changes in H+ concetration. If the H+ concentraion rises, buffers combine with them, if the H+ concentraion falls, buffers release H+thus the original conentraion of H+ is maintained.
ex: biocarbonate HCO3, phosphate
What are the weak bonds that allow interactions between individual atoms or molecules?
Ionic Bonds (between positive and negative Ions) Hydrogen Bonds (Between a hydrogen atom involved in a polar covalent bond and another atom involved in a polar covalent bond and Hydrophobic interactions because interactions between water molecules exclude hydrophobic molecules
What are the strong bonds that hold atoms together within molecules?
Covalent Bonds, by the sharing of electron pairs; equal sharing produces non polar covalent bonds; unequal sharing produces polar covalent bonds.