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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
species richness
The number of species living in a community
keystone species
Species whose influences on ecosystems are greater than
would be expected on the basis of their abundance, may influence both the species richness of communities and the flow of energy and materials through ecosystems
carrying capacity of the environment

# of individulas born

# of individuals died

# of individuals that immigrated

# of individuals that emigrated
amensalism (0/-)
one participant is harmed but the other is unaffected
commenalism (+/0)
one participant is benefited but one participant remains unaffected
mutalism (+/+)
both participants benefit from an interaction
The immature stages of insects between molts
phylum Hexapoda
the insects, 6 feet
layers of protein and a strong, flexible, waterproof polysaccharide
A substantial change that occurs between one developmental stage and another
the study of birth, death, and movement rates that give rise to population dynamics
what factors influence pop. density? (density-dependent)
1. abundant resources
2. size of individuals
3. newly introduced invasive species
4. complex social organizations
The species that form an ecological community, together with the physical environment
Any ecologically integrated group of species of microorganisms, plants, and animals inhabiting a given area.
Bilateral symmetry
The condition in which only the right and left sides of an organism, divided exactly down the back, are mirror images of each other
In vascular plants, the tissue that conducts water and minerals
In vascular plants, the tissue that transports sugars and other solutes from sources to sinks
the individuals of a same species within a given area at the same time
tentative answer to a question, from which testable predictions can be generated
pollen grain
male gametophyte
double fertilization
two male gametophytes particiapte in fertilization events within the megagametophyte. One sperm combines with the egg to produce a diploid zygote, the other sperm nucleus combines with two other haploid nucleoid of the female gametophyte to form a triploid nucleus that gives rise to the endosperm, triploid tissue that nourishes the embyonic sporophyte during its early development
absorptive nutrition
fungi excrete digestive enzymes that break down large food molecules and then absorb the breakdown products
multicellualr heterotroph
live by absorptive nutrition, most are saprobes others are parasites, some have symbiotic relationships with other organisms, produce chitin, multicellular fungi are composed of hyphae which composes the mycelium, some are coenocytic, most are both asexual and sexual
anything that is neither a plant, an animal or a fungi, most are aqautic, most are unicellular, both asexual and sexual
bacteria, eukarya, archaea
alternation of generations
cycle that includes both multicellular haploid and diploid individuals, gametes are produced by mitosis, meiosis produces spores that develop into multicellular haploid individuals, sporophyte(zygote--> multicellular, diploid plant ) and the gametophyte
photsynthetic eukaryote, stores carbohydrates as starch and devlops from an embryo proteted by the tissues of the parent plant, lifecycle fatures alternation of generations
an organized gentic unit capable of metabolism, reproduction and evolution
meshwork of multiple organisms, one is a fungus and the other is a photosynthetic microrganism(a green algal partner or a cyanobacteria)
a hypothesis proposed by a systematist the describes the history of descent of a group of organisms from their common ancestor
parsimony principle
one should prefer the simplest hypothesis that is capable of explaining the known facts, minimizing the number of evolutionary changes over all characters in all groups in the tee
generally small b/c they lack an efficent system for conducting water and minerals from the soil to distant parts of the plant body, have a thin cuticle, sporophyte is dependent on the gametophyte
allopatric speciation
speciation that results when a pop. is divided by a geographic barrier, requires total genetic isolation
natural selection
the process of individual contribution in a pop., stabalizing selection(favor average individuals), directional selection (favor individuals that vary in one direction from the mean), disrutive selection (favor individuals that vary in both directions from the mean)
postzygotic reproductive barriers
operate after fertilization, hybrid zygote abnormality, hybrid infertility, low hybrid viability
prokaryotes that are no archaea, gram(-), gram(+)
live in environments that are extreme, prokaryotes,lack petidoglycan in their cell walls
biological evolution
changes over billions of years, began when cells formed
the diploid part of the plant that produces the spores
the haploid part of the plant that produces gametes