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38 Cards in this Set

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What is a gene?
A code for one protein
What is the function of DNA?
To code for proteins
What makes you different from another organism or the person sitting next to you?
The proteins you make
What is an ionic bond?
Chemical bond in which ions are attracted to one another by opposite charges
What is a covalent bond?
Chemical bond in which atoms share one pair of electrons
What are some important compounds with covalent bonds?
Sugars, fats and proteins
What is a monosaccharide?
A simple sugar; a carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. eg glucose
What is a monomer?
A small molecule that is a subunit of a polymer. eg glucose is a monomer of starch
What is a polymer?
A macromolecule cosisting of covalently bonded monomers
What is a protein used for?
Support, enzymes, transport, defence (antibodies), hormones, movement (muscle proteins)
What is a phospholipid?
Molecule that forms the bilayer of the cell's membranes; has a polar, hydrophillic head bonded to two, non-polar hydrophobic tails
The monomers of nucleic acids are ________?
Nucleotides
How do monomers join to form polymers?
Dehydration synthesis
How do polymers break apart to form monomers?
Hydrolysis
What does an enzyme do?
Controls all things in the cell
What kind of amino acids are there?
non-polar (hydrophobic), polar (hydrophillic), acid groups, basic groups
What is the most important thing about proteins?
The sequence of amino acids
What determines the sequence of amino acids?
Genes tell the cell how to make proteins
What are the 3 types of lipids?
1) Triglycerides (long term storage)
2) Phosophlipids (makes up membrane)
3) Steroids (hormones)
What are the nucleic acids?
Ademine and thymine
Guanine and Cytosine
What does a gene do?
- Tell how to make a protein
- Can duplicate itself
- Template for protein synthesis
What is the template for protein synthesis?
DNA -> RNA -> Proteins
What is a eukaryotic cell?
Type of cell that has a nucleus and organelles
What is a prokaryotic cell?
A cell that doesn't have a nucleus or organelles
What are some functions of cell membranes?
Barrier, compartamelization, regulated transport, structure for holding proteins and enzymes
What do plant cells have the animal cells do not?
Cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts
What does hypertonic mean?
Less water inside, more outside
What does hypotonic mean?
Less water outside, more inside
What is mitosis?
Process in which a parent nucleus produces two daughter nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus
What is meiosis?
Type of nuclear division that occurs as part of sexual reproduction, in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes in varied combinations
What is cytokinesis?
The division of the cytoplasm following mitosis and meiosis.
What is metaphase?
The chromosomes line up at the equatorial plane of the cell
What is anaphase?
The chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles of the cell
What is telophase?
1. New nuclear membranes are formed.
2. Spindle fibers fragment.
3. Chromosomes unwind and appear as chromatin fibers again.
4. Two new cells start to form
What does differentiation mean?
The process by which cells or parts of an organism change during development to serve a specific function.
What is transcription?
When DNA makes RNA which leaves the nucleus, which then makes proteins. Happens in the nucleus.
What is in each nucleotide?
Phosphate, a pentose sugar, nitrogen containing base
What are the four nitrogenous bases and which ones are complementary base pairs?
Adenine - Thymine
Guanine - Cytosine