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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
atom
the smallest unit of a chemical element, consists of a nucleus and one or more electrons
nucleus
the center of an atom, contains protons and neutrons
electron
negatively charged, with a mass of 0
proton
positive charge, mass of about 1, the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determine its element
neutron
mass about i amu,no electrical charge
mass
measures the quantity of matter present; the greater the mass, the greater the quantity of matter present
atomic mass unit (dalton)
the mass of a proton serves as a standard unit of measure: amu
gram
a measure of mass
charge (positive, negative, neutral)
e- have a negative charge, P+ have a positive charge and No have a neutral charge, unlike charges attract each other, like charges repel each other, atoms are electrically neutral
element
a pure substance that contains only one type of atom
periodic table
groups the elements according to their physical and chemical properties
period
horizontal rows, correspond to the number of electron shells in the atom
group
horizontal column, have elements with similar properties
atomic number
tells the number of protons
mass number (or atomic mass)
tells the number of P+ plus the number of No averaged over all isotopes
chemical symbol
the name of the element
isotope
isotopes of the same element all have the same, definitive, number of protons but differ in the number of nuetrons in the atomic nucleus
atomic mass
tells us the # of P+ plus the # of No
radioisotope, radioactivity
loss of energetic particles from an unstable nucleus, Three types:
Alpha: 2 protons, 2 neutrons (He nucleus);Has mass
Beta: an electron (from the nucleus);Note: a neutron can become and proton due to beta decay—resulting in a change in the number of protons in a nucleus
Gamma:Has no mass, pure energy
electron shell
e- orbitals constitute a series of e- shells, or energy levels, around the nucleus, the innermost shell consists of only one orbital, the s orbital, the second shell is made up of 4 orbitals, an s orbital and three p orbitals, and hence can hold up to 8 electrons
electron orbital
the region of space where the e- is found at least 90% of the time, the s orbital fills with e- first, a given orbitalcan be occupied by at most 2 electrons
chemically stable elements
when there are no unpaired electrons in the outermost shell, will not react eith other atoms, nobel gases
reactive atoms
have unpaired e- in their outermost shell, seek to attain the stable condition of having no unpaired e- in their outermost shell, acheive this by sharing e- or gaining or losing e-
molecule
two or more atoms linked together by chemical bonds
octet rule
the tendency of atoms in stable molecules to have 8 e- in their outermost shells
chemical bond
an attractive force that links two atoms together to form a molecule
covalent bond
the strong bond that results from the sharing of e-, quite stable because bonds are hard to break, bonds are the same in length, angle and direction reguardless of the larger molecule of which the particular bond is a part of
molecular weight
the sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in the molecule, ususally realted to a molecules size
structural formula
shows the chemical names of the elements and how many bonds are holding each atom
electronegativity
the attractive force that an atom exerts on electrons, more P= means more electronegative and the closer the e- are to the nucleus the more electronegative an atom is
nonpolar covalent bond
the atoms have the same electronegativities so the e- are shared equally
polar covalent bond
the atoms have differing electronegativities so the e- are unequally shared
partial unit of charge, “delta,” δ
result from polar covalent bonds because of the unequal sharing of e-, occur at the ends
hydrogen bond
a weak bond, Forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
ion
electrically charged particals that form when atoms gain or lose one or more e-
cation
positively charged ions
anion
negatively charged ions
ionic bond
bonds formed by chemical attraction etween ions bearing opposite charges
hydrophilic
"water-loving", having an affinity for water, polar molecules
hydrophobic
"water-hating", having no affinity for water,uncharged and nonpolar groups of atoms
chemical reaction
Is the making and breaking of chemical bonds,
Leads to changes in the composition of matter, bonding partners and energy may change in a chemical rxn
reactant
on the left side of the equation, what form the product(s)
product
on the right side of the equation, formed by the reactant(s)
energy
the capacity to do work, the capacity for change
potential energy
the energy that is possible
calorie
the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of pure water 1 degree celcius
solution
produced when a substance is dissolved in a liquid
solute
the substance that is being dissolved
solvent
the substance that is doing the dissolving
aqueous
a sloution formed when the slovent is water
mole
the amount of an ion or compound(in grams) whose weight is neumerically equal to its molecular weight
Avogadro’s number
6 x 10^23, a constant that realtes the weight of any substance to the # of molecules of that substance
molar solution
1 mole of a substance dissolved in water to make 1L
molarity
the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
acid
a substance that release hydrogen ions
base
substances that attach to hydrogen ions
reversible reaction
a reaction that can proceed in etiher direction depending on the relative starting concentrations of the reactants and products, written using a double arrow
strong acid or strong base
dissolve fully into its ions in water
weak acid or weak base
does not dissicociate completely in water
pH
the measure of the H+ concentration of a sloution, scale from 1-14, 7 being neutral, 1 being most acidic, 14 being most basic
buffer
chemical mixtures that maintain a relativelt constant pH even when substantial amounts of an acid or base are added
functional groups
each functional group has specific properties that, when attached to a larger molecule, in turn give the larger molecule specific properties, ones we need to know,
OH is polar; molecule becomes more hydrophilic

-COOH releases hydrogen ion (H+) in solution, increasing the [H+] of the solution; acts as an acid; COO–(is negatively charged)
-NH2 the “N” will attract a third hydrogen to itself, so that this group reduces the [H+] of the solution (acts as a base);N+H3 (is positively charged)
isomers
molecules with the same
chemical formula, but with the bonds rearranged , 2 types: structural(differ in how thier atoms are joined together) and optical(two isomers that are mirror images of each other)