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89 Cards in this Set

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Star Coral
Small, doesn’t build coral reefs, found in higher salinity waters
Cancer Crabs
Jonah Crab and Rock Crab, both higher salinity, rounder, decapod crustaceans, both have nine spines on the carapace
Jonah Crabs
creamy yellow, reddish carapace with yellow spots across it, serated/ grooved teeth or spines
Rock Crab
teeth are smooth, more yellowish on top with small purply brown dots
Pelagic Zone
Open ocean- fish that swim a lot- active pelagic swimming carnivorous predators (not bottom feeders)
Tuna fish, mackerel
Forage- food for other fishes
Blue Fish
Pelagic Zone
open ocean pelagic fishes, enter bay to feed not spawn, can be from 15- 20 lbs., varied populations, soft flesh fish, silvery with greenish grey back
Weakfish and Spotted Trout
Pelagic Zone
closely related
Weakfish has more prominent diagonal stripes on its dorsal surface/ sea trout does not
Lower jaw of a weak fish does not extend as far as the spotted sea trout
Red Drum
Pelagic Zone
4 feet, 50 pounds, lower part of bay, copper collared fish with black spot by its tail
Black Drum
Pelagic Zone
grows to 100 pounds, grayish silvery with black bands on the side; whisker like structures come off lower jaw- called bar bells; sensory structures on bottom feeding fish- black drum is a bottom feeder; strong jaws and cutting plates to chomp on
Pelagic Zone
fish aggregating in big schools, primarily oceanic, during migration they feed at bottom of bay; 4th or 5th trophic level feeders streamlined; possess finlets (a small, detached ray of a fin) that they can fold down and then elevate them back up to maneuver
Northern and Southern King
Pelagic Zone
fish: 36in long, lower part of bay, only northern king fish possesses a single bar bell and extended spine, both are bottom feeding fish, sometimes called itake
Puffer Fish
Pelagic Zone
inflates itself when under predation, bottom feeders
Pelagic Zone
cumbersome fish- doesn’t swim fast, can weigh hundreds of lbs., comes from salt water to fresh water on order to breed
chunky looking, comes into bay in summer, small teeth eat mollusks, snails, little clams
two def kinds, both found in lower part of bay: scup: Silvery fish w/ horizontal stripes, and sheeps head: vertical stripes
Southern Stingray
clear nose skates that have a thicker tail and lack a spine on it; rays give birth to living young, skates lay eggs
Mammals and Sea Turtles
Hotter/drier summer causes them to move up in bay, usually in deeper waters
Bottle Nosed Dolphin
feed on catfish and crabs, can get up to 1000 lbs.
Loggerhead Turtle
biggest sea turtle in bay, females come in bays sandy beaches to lay eggs; eat jellyfish (confuse plastic bags with them)
Diving Ducks
able to dive under water, swim around, and come up; feet located to back of their body (allows them to swim), cant walk around, most need momentum to fly; types of diving ducks:
small, prominent, white side of head, colored bill, “pretty”, able to dive AND jump off water, found late fall  feb around Bay, feeds on crustacean, snails, little fish; nests in old woodpecker holes in trees; legally hunted
bright yellow eye, small, nest in tree cavities, called “whistlers”, fast fliers- wings make whistling sound; are legally hunted; foun in brackish salt water- mid bay and south; good swimmers
Old Squaw
(Long Tailed Duck) male has very long tail, very deep divers- 100ft depth, use wings and feet to swim deep, stay underwater a long time, comes to bay later in season, found throughout bay
- lesser scaup found bay side, greater scaup found Oceanside, bill is bright baby blue, heads are dark blue, most commonly shot diving duck in Chesapeake bay
appear in large flocks, hunted but not eaten, dark brown, blackish, large; whitewinged scoter: largest, most common male also has white behind the eye; surf scoter: found in surf, conspicuous markings on head- white, black, and orange spots, black scoter- (black)
- large, come down in winter, are in NE for summer, active feeding on fish, found in mouth of chester, choptank, and south
Inter tidal Communities
Any area in between tides
Covered up by high tides, uncovered by low tides
Temperature is not constant
Rocky Shoreline
not many in Cbay, mostly found in CA, OR, NE, rough for animals and plants to live because of temperatures and physical stress, based on their feeding patterns (detritus, grazer)
Upper tidal Area
least covered by tide, terrestrial, blue green algae, upper pulmonate lichens, temperature changes, littorina- snail, periwinkle, wind, drying out, chitons, snails, grazer community (graze on algae) crustaceans found: amphipods (laterally compressed scuds, i.e. little shrimp) and isopods (dorsal ventrally compressed); resistant to drying out
Middle Tidal Area
: barnacle and mussel zone (bivalvia); can withstand drying out; life cycle of a barnacle: “nauplius” : larva  cypris larvasettle out on something permanently; rockweed, brown algae (provides protection), mussels: have byssal threads (hair like structures mussels grow to attach to things with)
Lower Tidal
Competition for space, exhibits the greatest biodiversity (least stressful); echinoderms especially seastars, brittle stars, sea urchins
Tide Pools
area on rocky shoreline where water is left in crevices of shoreline after the tide recedes and water remains; temperature varies a lot, salinity concentration increases as temperature increases; carbonate buffer system
Mud Flat
two types of sediment, silt and sand; green algae washed up here- sea lettuce- ulva) infauna- clams, worms, epifauna- crabs, etc.
Fiddler Crabs
: male has one claw that is greatly enlarged and believed to be some kind of sexual attraction for female
Three species:, uca pughax, uca pugilator, uca minax
Uca pughax
- marsh/ mud; smallest fiddler crab
Uca Pugilator
sandy areas, tolerant of most salinities; midsize
Uca Minax
red jointed fiddler crab prefers muddy sediments and brackish (mid salinity) to low salinity; is largest of 3 species
Wharf Crab
Eyes at edge of their shell
Hermit Crabs
Soft Pliable Structure
Posobranch Snails
live in water, have gills
Nassarius and ilyanasa are mud snails
Moon snails- shark eyes
Whelks- live in high salinity; knobbed, large, channeled- commercially important
Otter Troll
: net tolled behind a boat tied off at ends so fish don’t go in one end and out the other; 14 ft wide opening, 4.5 ft deep; top kept open by floats; held down at bottom by weighted chain
Slipper Shells
crepidula fornicate- males can reach down to females and fertilize them; all are males at birth- as they grow some turn into females; found mostly in lower bay
can be found in huge numbers in varied salinities; burrowing clams dig into sediment using foot; have siphon tube and pair of siphons (2 kinds of siphons- incurrent and excurrent)
Mya Arenaria
soft shelled clams; thinner and more brittle shell; “steamers” “mananor” commercially important all over east coast, densest population found in mid range salinities; have a big foot and can burrow deeply
hard shell, found in high salinity waters (CT, Cape Cod to Jersey Shore); short siphon tubes so clam cant burrow more deeply into sediment
boat zone; chalky white shell, unequal length siphons- (incurrent)
Rangia Clam
found in brackish waters, mid- low range salinities
Beach hopper(long antennae) and Beach Flea (short antennae)
commonly found amphipods; found high on beach
Horseshoe Crab
: Arthropod used for eel bait, increased regulation, ecologically important- lay eggs in spring which is important food supply for migrating shore birds, important in bio medical research
Ghost Crab
live on sandy beaches, primarily propocular (dawn dusk), live in burrows in sand, have a huge group of underground tunnels
Mole Crab
2 kinds of antennae, one catches food, one breathes
Gulls and Terns
1. terns are more graceful and streamlined
2. terns have deeper wing beats
3. terns often fly with heads and bill pointed downwards
4. gulls usually fly with heads and bills pointed straight ahead
5. most terns have a forked tail
6. most gulls have rounded or squared tail
7. most terns dive in water for food
8. most gulls skim water
Herring Gull
25”, larger, most common gull, 4 years to attain sexual maturity; pinkish legs, yellow bill with bright red spot on lower bill; opportunistic feeders
Laughing Gull
found in bay during warmer months, black head, red/orange feet, reddish bill
Great Blackbacked Gull
: white head/ breast, prominent black back, largest gull
Ring Billed Gull
slightly smaller than herring gull; black ring on bill; yellow bill/ legs, live in land/ behind tractors and agriculture
Common Tern
orange/ red bill with black tip; black legs
Caspian Tern
largest tern (1/2 size herring gull), orange/ red bill with a black tip; black legs, smooth with small tuft on head, black top of head
Royal Tern
black top of head with large tuft (crown), yellow bill, no black tip
Least Tern
smaller, yellow bill/ black tip, white forehead, sharper bill
black bills/ feet, smaller than ruddy turnovers, follow surf
white feather pattern across wing to tail to wing
Ruddy Turnstone
stocky (short heavy build); rust colored sack
Shallow Waters: greenish brown, rounded/ squared tails, profounding lower jaw
Striped Killfish
Shallow Waters:male has vertical strips, Female has horizontal stripes
Banded Killfish
Shallow Waters:skinnier head, bluer bands
Rainwater Killfish
Shallow Waters:smallest, no markings
Anchovies Silverslides
tell them apart by opening their mouths: silver sides are much smaller; both have a silver band that runs down their sides, silver side has 2 dorsal fins and pointy head; Bay Anchovy has a single fin and rounded head
active predator, sharp teeth
American Shad
Anadromous: silvery, big scales, soft flesh, scaled ridge on stomach, are in trouble because of pollution, over fishing, and dams
Anodramous: oily, bunker, forage fish, used for fertilizer, chicken food, oils for paint
Flat Fishes, small flat fish, found throughout bay
Summer/ Winter Flounder
Flat Fishes, come into bay to spawn at different times of year; are commercially and recreationally important
Spot (Drum Family)
silvery, found in mid- lower bay near piers and rock piles, black spot on side of gills, tail is slightly forked
Croaker (drum family)
silvery with pink sheen with stripes; no forked tail, has a bar bell on chin,
spends life in heads of rivers and freshwaters, Sargasso sea go to spawn every 7 or 8 years, mate and die, young come back up; active nocturnally; feed on clams, commercially important (best bait for blue crabs), catch and ship to Japan for delicacy
Channel Catfish
largest type (up to 4 ft.), greenish white with spots, normally found in deeper waters, deeply forked tail and dark barbells
up to 2 ft., found more often in shallow waters, grayish white with no spots, tail is slightly forked, light in color bar bells
Brown Bullhead
brown gray mottled, smaller, tail is not forked, dark barbells
Black Crappie
Jaw extends out
Largemouth Bass
Jaw extends past the eye when closed.
Mute Swan
Shallow water birds:“s” shaped neck, wings are elevated over their body, black at base of orange bill with a knob
Tundra Swan
Shallow water birds:straight neck, wings lower on the body, migrate annually, yellow slash on black bill, gunning season on them in VA and NC
Redheaded Merganser
Shallow water birds:diving duck, eats fish, long bill, green head, white around neck
Belted Kingfisher
Waders along edge of water:bluish/ grayish, white around neck, big bill, lives along streams/ rivers- not out in bay
Great Blue Heron
Waders along edge of water: breeds/ roosts in trees, here year round
Great Egret
Waders along edge of water: : white, prominent yellow bill, black legs and feet, nests in solitary (ones and twos) in tree
Snowy Egret
Waders along edge of water: “egret with golden slippers”, nests in groups, black bill, yellow feet, black legs
Yellow Legs
Waders along edge of water:found at end of marshes: greater yellowlegs: bill upturns at end (a little); lesser yellowlegs: bill is straight