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120 Cards in this Set

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Metal tools used to pick up small items
Forceps
glass, used to stir solutions
Stirring Rods
short, used to culture bacteria
Petri Dishes
Porcelain plates w/ several rows of depressions. used to mix samples
Spot Plates
Used to write on surfraces
Wax pencils
nozzles filled w/ water
Plastic Squirt bottles
Who observed the compund eye of an insect?
Galileo
Ovwerved creatures found in pond water?
Leeuwenhoek
Binocular?
Magnification?
2 oculars/eyepeices
10x
Arm of microscope?
supports oculars, attaches it to base.
Revolving Nose Peice?
Can be rotated to postition any 1 of several objective lenses.
3 Objective Lenses?
1) Scanning Objective: wide field of vision (4x)
2)Lower Power: narrow field (10x)
3) High Power:Smaller field of view, magnifies a specimen
Hot do you find the total magnification?
Multiply Ocular mag. by objective mag.
All matter is composed of ____ which is composed of _____
1. Elements
2. Atoms
How many elements are there?
92
4 Elements in all Living things
1. Oxygen
2. Carbon
3. Hydrogen
4. Nitrogen
How are molecules formed?
Elements are chemically combined with one another.
Compounds?
Molecules w/ 2 or more diff. elements
Compounds are divided into 2 groups-
1. Inorganic
2. Organic
Inorganic Molecules (2) and example
1. Small, Simple
2. Never contain atoms arranged in chains.
EX- Water
Organic Compounds
1. Large, Complex
2. Always contain carbon attoms arranged in chains
The general shape of an organic molecule is determined by?
Carbon Skeleton- arrangement. of carbon atoms
Functional Groups (6)
1.Amino
2. Carboxyl
3. Hydroxyl
4. Ketone
5. Aldehyde
6. Phosphate
Functional Groups determine:
molecule's chemical properties.
What F.G makes molecules more acidic?
Carboxyl, Phosphate
What F.G makes molecules more basic
Amino
What F.G makes molecules more polar
Hydroxyl, Ketones, Aldehydes
Hydrophilic(2) and ex
-Dissolve easily in water (polar solvent)
-Water loving
-Sugar
Hydrocarbons (2)
Ex
-Nonpolar
-Hydrophobic (Fear of water)
EX- Fats&oils
4 major classes of Organic Macromolecules found in Living Things:
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. Nucleic Acids
3 Different classes of Carbohydrates
1. Monosaccharides
2. Polysaccharides
3. Disaccharides
Monosaccharides (2and example)
-simplest
-serve as monomoers to build larger more complex carbohydrates
-Ex: Glucose and Fructose
Disaccharides
-Double Sugars, 2 mono joined together
-Ex- Sucrose(Table sugar)
Polysaccharides
-Complex Carbohydrates
-Long chains of monos.
Ex-Starch
How is sucrose transformed form monosaccharides Glucose&Fructose?
Dehydration Synthesis
Lipids (3)
-Hydrophobic
-Consist almost entirely of carbon &Hydrogen with no polar functional groups.
-Will not dissolve in a polar solvent
Most Common lipid?
What is it?
Liquid, Solid?
Funtion?
-Triglycerides
-Glycerol joined to 3 molecules called fatty acids.
-Solid=Fats Liquid=oils
-Energy Storage
Proteins? #
-Polymers composed of monomers called amino acids
-20
Amino Acids
-Central Carbon Atom, with a hydrogen atom, Carboxyl group and an amino group
Peptide Bonds
-indiv. amino acids linked together formed by dehydration synthesis.
A long chain of amino acids
Polypeptide Chain
One of the most impt. groups of protiens?
Enzymes: Proteins that act as catalysyst to speed up metabolic reactions w/in cells.
Reagents?
Negative Control?
Positive Control?
-indicators
-Will not react w/ test reagents
-will react
Benedicts Test
1. what?
2. color of Bendicts reagent?
3. Color change if its positive
4. Example
1. Reducing Sugars
2. Blue
3. yellow, orange, red
4. Glucose
Iodine Test
1. for what?
2. Color?
3. Color change=positive?
1. Starch
2. Golden Amber
3. Blue-black
Sudan III
1. for what?
2. Color?
3. Color Changes
4. Hydrophobic Interaction?
1. Lipids
2. Red
3. Solid Red throughout=positive
4. Non-polar liquid separates from water forming a floating red layer.
Biuret Test
1. what?
2. Color?
3. Color Change?
4. Reacts with?
1. protein
2. pale blue
3. violet
4. peptide bonds
Fundamental Principle of Biology?
1. All living organisms are composed of cells
2. Cell Theory
Cells are structural, Functional, and reproductive
1. Hooke
2. Leeuwenhoek
3. Shleiden & Schwann
4. Virchow
1. term cell
2. organisims in pond water
3. plants and animals
4. Pre-existing cells
2 types of cells and examples
1. Prokaryotic- no nucleus
ex: bacteria
2. Eukaryotic-nucleus
ex: animals, plants, fungi, protists
In Non-living systems how can chemical reactions be speeded up? -3
1. Higher temps
2. Increasing Reactants
3. Catalysts
How do Chemical Reactants work?
1. reactants bind @ surface
2. They react, and break away to form a new product.
What are cataylysts in biological sysytems>
Enzymes, have chemical & physical stuctures
Active Site
-Where the enzymes react
-Where substrates temporarily bind forming an enzyme-substrate complex
What can affect Enzymes
1. Denatured by extremes of temp. & PH
2. Inhibited by other chemicals
Cells constantly carry out the process of ____
1. Cellular Respiration
2.to make out available energy
1. What is the reaction of cellular respiration?
2. What does it transorm into?
1. extract energy present in chemical bonds of food molecules.
2. High Energy ATP (energy Currency)
2 Types of Cellular Respiration
1. Aerobic: with oxygen, extracts more energy from food.
2. Anerobic: without oxygen, allows cells w/ low energy needs to function without oxygen.
Glucose is ________ because ____
-oxidized
-Hydrogens are removed from glucose and donated to oxygen (forming water)
Respiration without Oxygen
Fermentation
How can we measure Respiration?
-Amount of oxygen/glucose used
-Amount of Carbon dioxide/energy produced
2 Events in Cell Division
1. Mitosis
2. Cytokinesis
Parts of Mitosis:
1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telephase
Cytokinesis?
When?
1. Division of cytoplasm, creates 2 daughter cells
2. Telophase
Interphase:
1. phases and explanation
-period of no cell dividing
1. G1 Phase: Cell growth
2. S Phase: DNA synthesis, chromosomes are replicated
3. G2 Phase: final preparations for dividin.
*Distinct nucleus and chromatin
3 reasons why human genetics is more difficult to study
1. Limited knowledge of their genetic background
2. Long generation time
3. Few offspring
Pedigree
Family tree of traits
Incomplete Dominance examples
Hair Form
Red Hair pigment?
dominant/recessive
- Dominant if you dont have Trichsiderm, which creates red hair
Sex Linked Trait example
Red/Green Colorblindness
Sex Influenced Trait
-Index finger vs. Ring Finger length.
-Hand Clasping
Palmaris Longus Muscle
Dominant/Recessive?
-Not having the muscle=Dominant
ABO blood type is an example of
Multiple Alleles
Sponges Characteristics
Osculum?
Ostia?
Atrium?
Chanocytes?
1. Lack Definitive organs
-pore water leaves through
-water enters then enters the ATRIUM
-lines atrium
Spicules
Matrix Inbetween the 2 layers of sponge, strengthens the body of sponge.
Spongin
- Group of sponges that have Spicules & Proteins
Rheo=
Pressure
Radially Symmetrical
not active
Sponges, Cnidara
Bilaterally Symmetrical
move actively
Worms
Annelids
-Complete organ systems
-Earthworm
Phylum Arthropoda
-largest species group
Arthropods
First organisims to adapt to terrestial life
Segmentation
local specialization
Coelm
body cavity lined w/mesoderm
-Allows muscle layers to be split and wrap around internal organs
Seminal Vesicles
location of testes, where sperm are produced
Seminal Receptacles
4 whitish sacs, only distingusihable part of female production system
Metanephridia
Excretory System of paired organs
Metanephridium
funnel tube
If the haploid number of chromosomes is 12, what is the diploid #
24
Technical Term for division of Cytoplasm
-Cytokinesis
At the end of Meiosis, there are ___ daughter cells, each with the ___ number of chromosomes
1. 2
2. haploid
A chart that illustrates unions for several generations in a family
Pedigree
Clorophyll is present in:
fungi, animal cells, bacteria, none?
None of the Above
What influence does a catalyst have on a chemical reaction
-speeds reaction
Purple Stained structures inside cells
Leucoplasts
Functional Groups are impt. in a biological molecule b/c
They determine it's chemical properties
The sum of all chemical reactions in a cell is known as:
Metabolism
Why did boiling the enzyme catecholaske prevent it from catalyzing the oxidation of catechol
Boiling water denatured the catecholase
With what organisim did you demonstrate anaerobic respiration?
Yeast
What would the letter p look like if the whole thing could be seend under a compound microscope:
b
Water is an _____ molecule beacuse it does not contain carbon
Inorganic
In your class's experiment with anaerobic respiration you measured the accumulation of what gas?
CO2
Early microscopist who first observed and described animalcules and bacteria
Leeuwenhoek
A common Monosaccaride
Glucose
Collective name given to all biological catalysts
Enzymes
In what Eukaryotic cellular organelle do the reactions take place that make available chemical engergy
Mitochondria
Breadmaking involoves Anaerobic Respiration by yeasts, what effect does this have on the bread itself?
The CO2 produced as a by produce to anaerobic respiration makes the bread rise
t/f Biuret is the reagent used to test for the presence of starch
False
What group of organic compounds are all hydrophobic
Carbohydrates
Class of organic moleculesdo enzymes belong>
Proteins
Final electron acceptor in aerobic cellular respiration
O2
What class of organic molecules are made up of amino acids
Carbohydrates
What was the source of enzyme catecholase for our experiments
Peas
Fermentation?
respiration with O2
The only organelle you could clearly see within your own cheek epithelium cells was the nuclus T/F
True
With what organisim did you demonstrate aerobic respiration
Peas
Control
Variable used for comparison
In your series of experiments w/ the oxidation of catechol, what substance acted as a reducing agent to reverse the oxidation reaction?
Ascorbic Acid
Phenylthiourea prevented catecholase from catalyzing the oxidation of catechol to quinone and the production of melanin, what do we call the effect of phenylthiourea on the functioning of catecholasee
Inhibitant