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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
animals shape andsize
feature biologits often call body plans and are fundamental aspects of form and function
animals shape and size
has a direct effect on how the animal exchanges enery and materials with its surroundings
animals body plan
must allow all of its living cells to be bathed in an aqueous medium
surface to volume ratio
is on of the physical constraints on the size of single celled protists
its enire surface area contacts the environment
hydra's body
consists of two layers of cells and every cell contacts the environment
lining of small intestine
digestive organ, is elaborated with fingerlike projections that expand the surface area for nutrient absorption
groups of cels with a common structure and function
Epithelial tissue
covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body they are riveted together by tight junctions, barrier for injury microbes and fluid loss
Glandular opithelia
absorb or secrete chemical sulutions
Mucous membrane
secrets mucus that lubricates the surface and keeps it moist
Simple epithelium
has a single layer of cells
stratified epithelium
multple layers of cells
Pseudostratified epithelium
is single layered but appears stratified because the cells vary in length
shape of cells like dice
shape of cells like bricks standing on end
cell shape like floor tiles
Connective tissue
functions mainly to bind and support other tissues they hve a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
Connective tissue fibers
made up of protien and consist of collagenour,elastic,reticular
Collagenous fibers
made of collagen, probably the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom
Elastic fibers
long threads made of a protein called elastin made of rubbery quality
Reticular fibers
very thin and branched composed of collagen and continous with collagenous fibers
Connective tissue in vertebrates
Lose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, bone and blood
Loose connective tissue
fibroblasts and macrophages
secrete the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers
Amoeboid cells that roam the maze of biers engulfing foeign particle and the debris of dead cells by phocytosis
Muscle tissue
conposed of long cells called muscle fibers that are capable of contracting usually when stimulated by nerve signals
muscle is the most abundant tissue in most animals and accounts for much of the energy consuming cellular work in an active animal
Vertebrate body
3 types of muscle tissue, skelatal, cardiac, smooth
Neervious tissue
senses stimuli and transmits signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to another.
The functional part of a nervous tissue isthe neuron
stratified columnar epithelium
lines the inner surface of the urethra
simple columnar epithelium
lines the intestines and secretes digestive juices and absorbs nutrients
pseudostratified cilated columnar epithelium
forms a mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract of many vertebreates moves a film of mucus along the surface and keeps lungs clean
cuboidal epithelia
kidney tubules and many glands, including the thyroid gland and salivary glands secrets bodys rate of fuel consumption
simple squamous epithelia
thin and leaky, function in the exchange of material by diffusion diffusion of nutrients is crucial
stratified squamous epithelia
regenerate rapidly by cell division near the basement membrane. the new cells are pushed to bree surface as replacements for cells
Its found on surfaes subject to abrasion like the outer skin and linings of the esophagus anus and vagina
loose connective tissue
most widespread tissue, binds epithelia to underlying tissues and functions
has an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix made of a protein carbohydrate
chondroitin sulfate and collagen are secreted by cells
attach muscles to bones
attach bones to joints
Adipose tissue
form of loose connective tissue that stores fat in adipose cells distributed throghout its matrix it pads and insulates the body and stores fuel as fat
Skeletal muscle
responsible for voluntary movements of the body, cossists of bundles of long cells caled fibers and each strand is a myofibril
Straited muscle
the sarcomers along the length of the fibers gives the cells a stiped appearance and this is straited
Smooth muscle
lacsk straitions and is found in the walls of digestive tract urinary bladder, arteries and other internal organs.
Cardiac muscle
forms the contractile wall of the heart it is striated like skeletal muscle and has contractile properties similar to those skeletal muscle
It branches and interconnects the intercalated disks
different tissues are organized into them and some in layers
Organ systems
carry out the major body functions of most animals
Chemical energy
what anamals use in food to sustain form and function they require it for growth, repair, physiological processes, regulation and reproduction
the flow of energy through an animal
Limits the animals behavior growth and reproduction
Determines how much foods needed
once the food has been digested the enery containing molecules are used to make this up, which powers cellular work
The remaining molecules from food are used for this
Metabolic rate
is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time
birds and mammals are very endothermic and their bodies are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism an dhave higher metabolism rates
amphibians and reptiles other than birds are ectothermic and they gan their heat mostly from external sources
basal metabolic rate and its the rate of an endotherm at rest
standard metabolic rate and is the metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest
Energy use
BMR, SMR activity, homeostasis, growth, and reproduction
Internal environment of vertebrates
caled the interstitial fluid
balance between external changes and the animals internal control mechanisms that oppose the change
Regulating and Conforming
2 extremes in how animals cope with environmental fluctuations
Animal regulator
if it uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external environmental fluctuation
Animal conformer
if it allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes
Homeostatic control system
3 functional componenets (receptor, control center, and effector
Negative feedback
where buildup of the end product of the system shuts the system off
Positive feedback
which involves a change in some variable that triggers mechanisms that simplify the change
contributes to homeostasis and involves the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range
emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero
a lizard absorbs heat radiating from the sun
can transfer heat between objects that are not in direct contact
removal of heat from the surface of a liquid thatis losig some of its molecules as gas
evaporation of water from a lizards moist surface has a strong cooling effect
gan most of their heat from the environment
can use metabolic heat to regulare their body temperature
transfer of heat by the movement of air orliquid past a surface
-breeze contributes to heat loss from a lizards dry skin
direct transfer of thermal motion between molecules of objects in direct contact with each other
-a lizard sits on a hot rock
major thermoregulatory adaptation in mammals and birds
-reduces the flow of heat between an animal and its environment (feathers,fur blubber)
the integumentary system acts as insulating material
blood flow in the skin increases facilitating heat loss
blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss
Marine mammals and birds
have arrangements of blod vessels called countercurrent heat exchangers that are important for reducing heat loss
carrying warm blood down the legs of a good or the flippers of a dolphin are in close contact with veisn conveying cool blood in the opposite direction backtoward the trunk of the body
-this arrangement facilitates heat trasfer from arteries to veins along the entire length of the blood vessels
Venous blood
continues to absorb heat as it passes warmer and warmer arterial blood traveling in the opposite direction
Flipper of a dolphin
each artery is surrounded by several veins in a countercurrent arrangment, allowing efficient heat exchange between arterial and venous blood
Endothermic insects
have countercurrent heat exchangers that help maitain a high temperature in the thorax
Moistening skins
helps to cool an animal down
Endotherms and ectotherms
use a variety of behavioral respronses to control body temperature
Flying insects
use shivering to warm up before taking flight
Mammals regulate body temp
by a complex negative feedback system that involves several organ systems
the hypothalamus contains a group of nerve cells that function as a thermostat
many animals can adjust to a new range of environmental temperature over a period of days or weeks
Birds and Mammals (changing temp)
adjustments of insulation and metabolic heat production
adaptation that enables animals to save energy while avoiding difficult and dangerous conditions
-activity is low and metabolism decreases
Hibernation is long term torpor
an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity during which the animals body temp declines
Estivation or summer torpor
enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies
Daily Torpor
is exhibited by many small mammals and birds and seems to be adapted to their feeding patterns