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Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
Louis Pasteur is credited with having coined the term "virus"
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True-
Louis Pasteur is credited with having coined the term "virus"
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
Louis Pasteur is credited with having coined the term "virus" in this year:
a) 1904
b) 1804
c) 1884
d) 1784
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
Louis Pasteur is credited with having coined the term "virus" in this year:
c) 1884
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
Louis Pasteur was studying this disease when he was credited with coining the term "virus":
a) Influenza
b) Tetanus
c) Smallpox
d) Cancer
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Louis Pasteur was studying this disease when he was credited with coining the term "virus":
e) none of the above
He was studying RABIES
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
Scientists on a Russian tobacco farm found sick leaves and injected the liquified filtrate of the leaves into healthy plants for the following reason:
a) To verify that all disease organisms were filtered out
b) To prove that the organisms responsible for the disease were fungi
c) To disprove Louis Pasteur's research
d) more than one above
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
Scientists on a Russian tobacco farm found sick leaves and injected the liquified filtrate of the leaves into healthy plants for the following reason:
a) To verify that all disease organisms were filtered out
( in doing so, they proved that the disease was smaller than bacteria )
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The translation (from French) of the word "virus":
a) Rabies
b) Tetanus
c) Fire
d) Cancer
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The translation (from French) of the word "virus":
e) none of the above
Virus is the French word for POISON
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
In comparing viruses with bacteria:
a) bacteria are smaller; bacteria are not affected by alcohol
b) viruses cannot be crystalized (when dehydrated); viruses have no DNA
c) viruses are much smaller; viruses are killed by alcohol
d) viruses have no metabolism; viruses have no cellular structure
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

In comparing viruses with bacteria:
d) viruses have no metabolism; viruses have no cellular structure
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The kingdom to which MOST viruses belong:
a) Monera
b) Protista
c) Plantae
d) Fungi
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The kingdom to which MOST viruses belong:
e) none of the above
Kingdoms currently apply ONLY to LIVING organisms. Viruses are not considered to be living, as they do NOT posses the following characteristics of ALL living things:
1) Cellular structure
2) Metabolism (chemical reactions within all living things)
3) Life (self-sustaining, biological processes)
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
ALL viruses are much smaller than bacteria and cannot be seen with standard optical microscopes
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True-
ALL viruses are much smaller than bacteria and cannot be seen with standard optical microscopes
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
Only a few viruses cannot be killed by alcohol
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
NO viruses can be killed by alcohol
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
Viruses are crystalline in structure
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
Active viruses are NOT crystalline in structure
However, viruses can be crystallized when dehydrated
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
Viruses have a special (unique) metabolism that is not shared with any other organism
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
Viruses have NO metabolism
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
Viruses have a special (unique) cellular structure that is not shared with any other organism
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
Viruses have NO cellular structure
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The structure of ALL viruses (as a minimum):
a) Protein Capsule (outside); Nucleus (inside)
b) Protein Capsid (outside); Nucleus (inside)
c) Protein Capsule (outside); Nucleic acid (inside)
d) Protein Capsid (outside); Nucleic acid (inside)
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

The structure of ALL viruses (as a minimum):
d) Protein Capsid (outside); Nucleic acid (inside)
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
Viruses contain one or more nucleic acids
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
Viruses contain ONLY one nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA)
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
Viruses that contain only DNA are called:
a) DNA viruses
b) Deoxyribonucleic viruses
c) Compound viruses
d) Complete viruses
e) Whole viruses
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Viruses that contain only DNA are called:
a) DNA viruses
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
Viruses that contain only RNA are called:
a) RNA viruses
b) Ribonucleic viruses
c) Simple viruses
d) Retroviruses
e) Partial viruses
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Viruses that contain only RNA are called:
d) Retroviruses
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
In comparing RNA to DNA:
a) RNA has one more strand of nucleic acids; RNA nucleotide bases are G, A, T, C
b) RNA has one strand of nucleic acids; RNA nucleotide bases are U (uracil), G, A, C
c) DNA has one more strand of nucleic acids; DNA nucleotide bases are G, A, T, C
d) more than one above
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)


In comparing RNA to DNA:
d) more than one above
( b & c )
b) RNA has one strand of nucleic acids; RNA nucleotide bases are U (uracil), G, A, C
c) DNA has one more strand of nucleic acids; DNA nucleotide bases are G, A, T, C
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
In comparing RNA to DNA:
a) RNA is located in the nucleus only; the sugar is Ribose
b) RNA is located in the nucleus and cytoplasm; the sugar is Ribose
c) DNA is located in the nucleus only; the sugar is Deoxyribose
d) more than one above
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

In comparing RNA to DNA:
d) more than one above
( b & c )
b) RNA is located in the nucleus and cytoplasm; the sugar is Ribose
c) DNA is located in the nucleus only; the sugar is Deoxyribose
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
In cells, DNA is located within both the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
In cells, DNA is located only within the NUCLEUS
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
The Lytic Cycle of viruses derives its name from the latin word "lys" (to kill)
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True-
The Lytic Cycle of viruses derives its name from the latin word "lys" (to kill)
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The Lytic Cycle of viruses is also known as:
a) Obligatory Intercellular Parasites
b) Obligatory Intracellular Parasites
c) Obligate Intercellular Parasites
d) Obligate Intracellular Parasites
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

The Lytic Cycle of viruses is also known as:
d) Obligate Intracellular Parasites
(must be) (within cells) (to destroy)
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The appplication of the terms Virus; Virion, and Phage:
a) attacking; bodies; same as virus (in a host)
b) attacking; cells; another name for Virion
c) attacking; host; same as virus (in a host)
d) host; cells, same as virus (in a host)
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

The appplication of the terms Virus; Virion, and Phage:
a) attacking; bodies; same as virus (in a host)
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
Definition of a Bacteriophage:
a) a virus that mimics a bacteria
b) a bacteria that mimics a virus
c) a virus that attaches itself to a bacteria to infect a third-party host
d) a virus that attacks a bacteria
e) a bacteria that attacks a virus
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Definition of a Bacteriophage:
d) a virus that attacks a bacteria
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
A plant phage is a bacteria that has a retrovirus "riding on it" as it infects a plant
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
A plant phage is a virus that infects plants
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
An animal phage is a virus that possesses the metabolic characteristics of animals
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
An animal phage is a virus that attacks animals
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
When a virus lands on its host cell:
a) the entire virus penetrates the host cell membrane to attack the nucleus of the host cell
b) the nucleus of the virus penetrates the host cell membrane to attack the nucleus of the host cell
c) the nucleotides of the virus penetrate the host cell membrane to attach to the DNA of the host cell
d) the nucleic acid of the virus penetrates the host cell membrane to attach to the DNA of the host cell
e) the nucleotides of the virus penetrate the host cell membrane to attach to the RNA of the host cell
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
When a virus lands on its host cell:

d) the nucleic acid of the virus penetrates the host cell membrane to attach to the DNA of the host cell
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
When a DNA virus attacks the interior of its host cell:
a) the viral DNA commands the host to make RNA
b) the viral DNA commands the host to stop reproducing (and ultimately die)
c) the viral DNA commands the host to start dividing prematurely, and the host dies from "starvation"
d) the viral DNA commands the host to replicate (make) new viruses
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

When a DNA virus attacks the interior of its host cell:
d) the viral DNA commands the host to replicate (make) new viruses
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The approximate point at which a virus actually kills each host cell, releasing the replicated (viral) DNA to infect the surrounding cells:
a) after 1000 viruses have been generated
b) after 1 million viruses have been generated
c) after 24-48 hours
d) after 100 viruses have been generated
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

The approximate point at which a virus actually kills each host cell, releasing the replicated (viral) DNA to infect the surrounding cells:
d) after 100 viruses have been generated
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The terms "prophage" and "provirus" are associated with:
a) the Lysogenic cycle
b) the Lysonomic cycle
c) the Purulent cycle
d) the Temperate cycle
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

The terms "prophage" and "provirus" are associated with:
a) the Lysogenic cycle
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The terms "prophage" and "provirus" are alternative terms for:
a) Temporary Infection
b) Virulent Infection
c) Bacteriophages
d) Temperate Infection
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

The terms "prophage" and "provirus" are alternative terms for:
d) Temperate Infection
( HINT: Opposite of Virulent Infection; this is an example of a virus that is "dormant" for awhile and shows no immediate symptoms)
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
The opposite of a Virulent Infection is a Temporary Infection
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
The opposite of a Virulent Infection is a TEMPERATE Infection
(a.k.a. "prophage" or "provirus")
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
ALL Retroviruses contain both DNA and RNA
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
NO Retroviruses contain both DNA and RNA; retroviruses contain ONLY RNA
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
Some Retroviruses contain ONLY RNA
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
ALL Retroviruses contain ONLY RNA
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
AIDS is an example of a Retrovirus
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True-
AIDS is an example of a Retrovirus
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
The term retrovirus derives its name from the fact that the virus contains RNA that must be changed "back to" (retro) DNA in order to infect its host
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True-
The term retrovirus derives its name from the fact that the virus contains RNA that must be changed "back to" (retro) DNA in order to infect its host
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The enzyme that is responsible for converting RNA to DNA:
a) Transcripted Reversetase
b) R-DNA Factor
c) Viroid amylase
d) Retrotranscriptase
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

The enzyme that is responsible for converting RNA to DNA:
e) none of the above
( Reverse Transcriptase )
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
Viroids are also known as:
a) Transcripted viruses
b) Amalgamated transcriptase
c) "Naked viruses"
d) "Stripper viruses"
e) Non-capsidal viruses
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Viroids are also known as:
c) "Naked viruses"
( Viroids contain no capsid, only RNA; they are therefore retroviruses )
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
Viroids contain:
a) DNA only
b) Amalgamated transcriptase
c) RNA only
d) either DNA or RNA
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
Viroids contain:
c) RNA only
(Viroids are therefore only retroviruses, as they contain no DNA)
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The 5 means by which humans overcome viruses include:
a) Rest, Vitamins, Oxygen therapy, Interamylase (protein), Antibodies (immune system defenses)
b) Rest, Vitamins, Water (flushes fluids from cells), Interamylase, Antibodies
c) Rest, Vitamins, Sunlight (generates Vitamin A), Interamylase, Antibodies
d) Rest, Vitamins, Alcohol (kills viruses on contact), Interamylase, Antibodies
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

The 5 means by which humans overcome viruses include:
e) none of the above
(Rest, Vitamins, Water, INTERFERON [infected cells release this protein in very small quantities to protect neighboring cells from viruses], and Antibodies)
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

Multiple Choice:
The single MOST important means by which humans overcome viruses:
a) Rest and Sunlight
b) Vitamins and Water
c) Interamylase
d) Antibodies
e) none of the above
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)
d) Antibodies
( Rest, Vitamins, Water, and Interferon are all important, but none of these is as SINGULARLY effective in fighting disease as Antibodies )
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

True / False:
The most lethal type of viruses in humans are the Viroids
Lecture Date: THU, 8.03.06
Subject: VIRUSES (part 2)

False-
Viroids are only known to infect plants