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32 Cards in this Set

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Stages of Cell Cycle
Late Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
I P M A T
INTERPHASE
Cells have 2 copies of each chromosome. 1 pair of little chromosones, 1 pair of big chromosomes.
DNA replication occurs
COPY phase
PROPHASE
First set of divisions, chromosomes condense, spindle forms. Chromosones are getting ready to move around.
CONDENSE phase
METAPHASE
Chromosones align along equator of cell. No nucleus, spindle fills entire cells to spread out genetic materials
ORGANIZE phase
ANAPHASE
Sister Chromatids (tetrads) separate to opposite poles of cell. Cell starts to elongate.
SEPERATE phase
TELOPHASE
Nuclear membranes assemble around 2 daughter nuclei. Chromosones decondense. Spindle disappears. Now a Haploid
REBUILD phase
DIPLOID
2 copies of each chromosone. Ex: skin and muscle cells.
normal cells
HAPLOID
1 copy of each chromosone. Ex: sperm and eggs
sperm & eggs
MITOSIS
Cell division process which produces 2 daughter cells. Make a copy, duplicate, replicate.
cell divison process
During Mitosis is there a change in genetic content?
NO. Parent cells and daughter cells are both diploid.
diploid
Organisms use Mitosis for what purpose?
Growth and Repair
Mitosis is the only process where you can make an exact copy. TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE.
TETRIDES
X shaped chromatids
CYTOKINESIS
Divison of the cytoplasm into two cells. NOT A STAGE--an event that marks the end of telophase.
end of telephase
Does the cell cycle end with TELOPHASE?
No. After the cells divide they resume function or enter into another interphase division cycle.
The CELL CYCLE is highly regulated. TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE.
APOPTOSIS
mediated "cell death". Cells are programmed to die. Ex: sunburn (genetic material is damaged) cells die & won't divide.
Why are genes variated/flexible?
Helps us adapt to environment and keeps us from being wiped out by epidemics, etc.
MEIOSIS
Cell division process which produces FOUR daughter cells. It cuts chromosone count in half and gives 1/2 to each to make a whole.
cell division process
Does genetic content change in MEIOSIS?
Yes. Parent cells are diploid and daughter cells are haploid.
Organisms use meiosis for...
Making sperm & eggs
MEIOSIS I stages
Prophase I (diploid)
Metaphase I (diploid)
Anaphase I (diploid)
Telophase I (haploid) Result=2 haploid daughter cells
2
MEIOSIS II stages
Prophase II (haploid)
Metaphase II (haploid)
Anaphase II (haploid)
Telophase II (haploid)
Result= 4 nonidentical haploid daughter cells
4
Goal of MEIOSIS I
Reduce chromosones number from 2 to 1. End up with sperm/egg cells.
Goal of MEIOSIS II
Make 4 haploid daughter cells
MEIOSIS I- Prophase I
Early diploid. Duplicate DNA and check tetrads. Spindle fibers appear.

Late diploid. Create bivalent.
BIVALENT
2 Tetrads held together, promotes "Crossing Over" gene swapping.
MEIOSIS I- Metaphase I
diploid. Spindle fibers and chromosones ine up along equator.
MEIOSIS I- Anaphase I
diploid. starting to elongate.
MEIOSIS I- Telophase I
diploid. 2 nuclear envelopes with chromosones in each.
Independant Assortment Rule
No reason to believe each tetrad goes in one direction. They are independant. You can't predict where it will end.
MEIOSIS II- Prophase II
haploid. Each chromosonally distinct (a mix of chromosones)