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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is heat?
total kinectic energy due to the molecular motion in a body
What is kinetic energy?
energy of motion
What is the definition of temperature?
the measure of heat due to the average kinetic energy of molecules in a body
What is specific heat?
the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree celsius
what is a calorie?
the amount of energy it takes to raise 1 gram of a substance 1 degree celsius
surface tension?
measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
phenomenon of a substance being held together by H-bonding
ex) water to water
- creates surface tension

why is this important?

what is this called in plants?
phenomenon of a substance sticking to another substance by H-bonding
ex) water to another polar substance like glass
- facilitates movement of water up plants
- capillary action (imbibition) moves water up into small spaces
water supports life on earth....

4 ways
1. 3/4 earth covered by water
2. life evolved in water
3. 70-95 % of body made of water
4. water exists in all 3 physical states
5 ways water is advantageous to life..
1. high solubility
2. low density of ice
3. high heat of vaporization
4. high specific heat
5. high cohesive and adhesive forces
transformation from a liquid to a gas
heat of vaporization?
amount of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g to be converted to the gaseous state
what type of process is evaporation?
endo or exo....why

what type of process is condensation?
endothermic...cooling process...requires energy which is pulled from skin or surroundings

exothermic- liquid colls and environment released
heat of fusion?

how is this advantageous to the environment?
the energy it takes to change from a solid to a liquid

with water- it helps regulate temperature
how does water's density change?

density increases as temp is decreased until 4 celsius, where the density begans to decrease with the temperature

ice floats- prevents deep bodies from freezing

ice insulates water and releases heat as it melts
a liquid that is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances
the substance in greater amount in a solution
the substance in lesser amount in a solution
why is water a good solvent?
b/c of its ability to form H bonds and b/c it is polar....will gather closely around ions and polar molecules
what happens during the ionization of water?
spontaneous formation of ions....water undergoes this every 1/550 million molecules

H20+ H20= H3O+ + OH-
what is an acid?
a substance that liberates H+ ions in solution
what is a base?
a substance that liberates OH- ions in solution
what is ph?

how is the scale based?
- ph is the measure of the H+ ion concentration

- it is the negative log of the H+ concentration
-based on a scale of 10
who came up with theory of evolution?

what are the main points?
charles darwin

-natural selection
genetic variation exists
hierachial levels of organization....
atoms-molecules-organelles-cells-tissues- organs- organ systems- organisms
emergent properties?
properties that emerge at each higher level of organization
Schleiden and Schwann?

cell theory- all living things made of cells and cells can only be made from preexisting cells

-saw first cells in cork
anything that takes up space and has mass

a measure of the amount of matter in an object - same on diff planets

- due to gravitational pull
substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary chamical means
a pure substance composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio and has unique properties
2 or more atoms held together by covalent bond
smallest unit of matter with physical and chemical properties

proton- +, 1 dalton
neutron- neutral ""
electron- - no mass
the capacity to do work
hydrogen bond?
the attraction between a partially + charged H atom (which is bonded to an electronegative element) and an electronegative atom in another molecule

- very weak, but collectively very strong and very important
organic molecules contain....
contain only hydrogen and carbon

- fossil fuels, lipids,hydrophobic

2 types
compounds with same molecular formula but with different structures and properties- source of chemical variation

structural- differnet arrangement of atoms - carbon skeleton different
geometric- share same covalent relationships but differ in spatial arrangement- b/c of double bonds
functional groups-


oh- hydroxy- polar,h20 S,called alcohols

c=o-carbonyl- polar, h20 S, called sugars....
aldehyde- bound at end
ketone- bound in middle of C skeleton
functional groups


COOH- carboxyl, polar, h20 S, readily doantes H+, molecules called coarboxylic acids

NH2- amino group- polar, h20 S, may take up H+, molecules called amines
functional group



phosphate- polar, H20 S, acidic properties, important in cellular energy storage and transfer

sulfhydral- stabilizes proteins by forming disulfide bridges

methyl group- nonpolar, hyrdophobic
types of polymerization reactions

condensation reaction

polym- rxn which links 2 or more monomers(subunits)

cond- links 2 molecules with the removal of a h2o

hydol- breaks linkage with water
carbs- structure/function

functional groups?

building blocks?
many C-H bonds...EF= CH20
good for energy storage

groups- alcohol(OH) and aldehyde (C=O)

-monosaccharides-straight chain or ring
disaccahrides- glycosidic linkage
poly- starch and glycogen- many starches are branched making them insoluble
structural forms of polysaccahrides?


a- found in starch

b- found in cellulose

functional groups?

monomers- 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids

functional- glycerol is a 3 C alcohol
fatty acid- COOH- acts as organic acid
hydorcarbon chain


structure (sat or unsat, poly unsat)
ester linkage- formed between OH and COOH groups during condensation rxn

structure- saturated- no double or triple C bonds- holds all H atoms possible- solid at rm temp- animal fat

unsaturated- double or triple bonds are present- some H atoms missing- usually liquid at rm temp- plant fat

polyunsaturated- more than 1 doubl or triple bond
lipid characteristics



storage- up to 2x as much as starch with less weight

7 functions of proteins
enzyme catalysis

mono- amino acid (amino and carboxyl group (COOH) and R group)
- 20 amino acids

peptide bond- formed by conden rxn (covalent bond linking amineo & carboxyl groups)
rigid bonds
4 different structures of proteins?
primary- amino acid sequence

secondary- alpha helix or beta pleated sheet

tertiary- 3D shape- do to van der waals forces(weak interactions)- H bonding, ionic bonds b/w charged side chains, disulfide bridges, hydrophobic interactions

quaternary- # of polypeptide chains making up the protein
nucleic acid polymers and linkage?

phosphodiester bonds between phosphate group and a nucleotide and a sugar

DNA- double stranded, genetic material

RNA- single, uses info for protein synthesis
cell fractionation?

how is this done?
ability to isolate various parts of a cell's contents for study

advantages of comparmentalization
different enzymes in diff compartments can allow diff reactions to take place w/o interfering with one another

can have different environmental conditions


double membrane bound with different proteins in each layer

close to center of cell-controls activities of the cell

nucleolus- packages ribosomal subunits
chromosomes- condensed chromatin

composed of?


composed of rRNA and protein

in cytoplasm, free, or bound

protein synthesis
free- make proteins that fucntion in cytosol
bound- make proteins that export or inclusion in membranes
endoplasmic reticulum?

smooth? 4 main functions

rough?3 main functions
system of channels

smooth- no ribosomes- makes lipid, phospholipids and steroids
detoxifies drugs and poisons
stores calcium ions, metabolizes carbs

rough- has ribosomes- makes secretory proteins, glycoproteins, and more membrane
golgi apparatus


- finishes, sorts,and ships

lysosomes- digestive organelles
intercecllular digestion- phagocytosis
recylce cell's organic material
programmed call destruction

-- food, contractile, central vacuole
double membrane bound
makes ATP
cristae- inner membrane

contain chlorphyll
converts light energy to chemical energy in plants
double membrane bound

3 spaces- intermembrane, thylakoid, and stroma


3 types
support and mobility

microtubules- support, separation of chromosomes

microfilaments- support, muscle contraction

intermediate filaments- reinforce shape, fix organelle position
plasma membrane


separates the living cell from the environment
can self-assemble

selectively perrmeable

phospholipid, proteins, and cholesterol
singer membrane model
membrane fluidity -phospholipids and proteins can move in membrane but not from layer to later
what affects membrane fluidity?
prevents tight packing

to worl properly with enzymes and remain permeable- membrane must remain fluid
the fluid mosaic model

integral proteins

peripheral proteins
integral- transmembrane- hydro philic and phobic regions

peripheral- not embedded at all
loosely bound to surface
role of membrane proteins
reinforce shape of cell- framework

on cytoplasm side- can connect to cytoskeleton
exterior side- can attach to extracellular matrix
cell to cell recogntion
by carbohydrates located on surface

rejection of foreign bodies, vary between individuals
transport proteins

integral proteins that transport specific molecules or ions across a membrane

ex) water channel proteins (aquaprorin)
Na\K pump
traffic across the membrane


non polar molecules
polar- small enough to pass b/w membrane lipids
larger molecules will not pass through membrane
ions have great difficulty passing through membrane

nonpolar- dissolve in membrane and pass with ease
- smaller molecules pass the easiest
passive transport


diffusion across a membrane down a concentration gradient

diffusion- movement from high conce to lower conc

osmosis- mvmt of water from high to low
facilitated diffusion
diffusion of solutes across a membrane with the help of transport proteins

helps diffusion of polar molecules and proteins
very specific proteins
require no energy
facilitated diffusion can be slowed down by
saturation of proteins
competitive inhibitors
active transport
mvmt of a substance across a membrane with the help of a protein carrier and cellular energy

- helps maintain conc gradient

ex) Na-K pump 3 na out , 2 k in
membrane potential drives....

what do ion pumps do?
passive diffusion of ions across a membrane

ion pumps henerate voltage across the membrane
electrochemical gradient
diffusion gradient that results from combunes effects of membrane potential and concentration gradient
electrogenic pump
transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane

voltage created is source of enery for cellular work
process of a single ATP powered pump actively tansporting 1 solute and indirectly transporting another solute against its concentration gradient


receptor mediated endocytosis
exporting macromolecules from a cell by the fusion of a vescicle with plasma membrane

importing macromolecules into a cell by forming vesicle derived from mb
- phagocytosis- solid matter
- pinocytosis- fluid
- receptor mediated- allows a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific material that may be in low concentration in the environment