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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the functions of the skeletal system?
-protection
-support
-mineral reservoir
-hemopoiesis
-site of muscle attachment
-energy storage
what are 6 types of bones?
-long bones
-short bones
-flat bones
-irregular bones
-sesamoid bones
-wormian bones
what are long bones?
-bones with a greater length than diameter
-they MUST have a medullary cavity
ex: humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula
what are short bones?
-cubelike bones; wider than they are long
-inner spongy bone with an outer cover of compact bone
ex: carpals and tarsals
what are flat bones?
-2 layers of compact bone with a thin layer of spongy bone in between
ex: skull bones, scapula, sternum
what are irregular bones?
-bones with extremely varied shaped parts
ex: vertebrae, sphenoid, os coxae, ehtmoid, maxilla
what are sesamoid bones?
-small bones that form with tendons
ex: patella
what are wormian bones?
-small bones filling in the spaces in the sutures
what are the 3 osseous tissue cells?
-osteoblasts
-osteocytes
-osteoclasts
what are osteoblasts?
-bone cells that secrete the osseous matrix, osteoid, collagen fibers and hydroxyapatite
what are osteocytes?
-mature bone cells found trapped in the lacunae
-maintain adult bone
what are osteoclasts?
-giant, multinucleate phagocytic bone cells
-secretes acid phosphatase, an bone dissolving enzyme that destroys old bone
describe the osseous tissue matrix
-composed of osteoid and hydroxyapatite
osteoid: made of collagen, proteoglycans and glycoproteins; provides flexibility
hydroxyapatite: made of a variety of calcium phosphate salts; provides rigidity
what is spongy bone?
-the site of hemopoiesis
-formed from spicules of bone called trabeculae, which are deposited in an irregular pattern determined by stress placed on bone
what is the diploe?
-the spongy bone found between layers of compact bone in flat bones
what is compact bone?
-dense, solid bone
-deposited in a highly regular pattern surrounding blood vessels in a Haversian system
-located on the surface of spongy bone
what is the Haversian system?
-the arrangement of bone cells in rings around blood vessels
-bone cells deposit osseous matrix (osteoid & hydroxyapatite) in layers called lamellae
what is the Haversian canal?
-the central hole in a Haversian system in which the blood vessel, nerves, etc. are located
what are the lacunae?
-rings of small holes in the osseous tissue filled with osteocytes
what are the lamella?
-rings of bony material in a Haversian system
what are the canaliculi?
-small canals in the osseous tissue which provide a path for the nutrients to travel to the osteocytes from the blood vessel in the Haversian canal
what are the Volkman's canals?
-canals in which blood vessels enter the bone tissue
-blood vessels arise in the periosteum and enter the bone at right angles via these canals
what is articular cartilage?
-cap of cartilage at each end of a long bone
what are the epiphyses?
-the knoblike proximal and distal ends of a long bone
-composed of spongy bone with an outer layer of compact bone
what is the epiphyseal plate?
-a plate of cartilage in the epiphyses
-site of longitudinal growth and hemopoiesis in long bones
-when bone growth ends the plate is ossified and becomes the epiphyseal line
what is the diaphysis?
-the hollow shaft of a long bone
what is the medullary cavity?
-hollow cavity within the diaphysis of a long bone
-in children its the site of hemopoiesis
-in adults, yellow fat (adipose tissue) is stored here
what is the periosteum?
-fibrous membrane on the the outer surface of bone
-blood vessels arise here
what is then endosteum?
-membrane lining the medullary cavity
-composed of osteoblasts and osteoclasts
what are the 2 types of embryonic bone fomation?
-intramembranous: forming bone within membranes
-endochondral: forming bone in a cartilagenous structure
what is osteogenesis?
-the name of the process in which bone is formed
what is ossification?
-the process of depositing hydroxyapatie (Ca salts) onto osteoid
-ONLY TAKES PLACE IN BONE
-the replacement of cartilage by bone
what is calcification?
-the process of depositing Calcium into any tissue
what is acid phosphatase?
-an enzyme active at an acidic pH USED BY OSTEOCLASTS TO BREAK DOWN existing bone or calcified cartilage
what is alkaline phosphatase?
-an enzyme active at an alkaline pH USED BY OSTEOBLASTS TO OSSIFY BONE
what is intramembranous ossification?
-the process of forming dermal bones: flat & cranial bones, the mandible and clavicle
what are the 5 stages of intramembranous ossification?
1-formation or a fibrous connective tissue membrane
2-formation of an ossification center
3-formation of trabecula
4-formation of periosteum
5-surface remodeled to form compact bone
what are the fontanels?
-fibrous membrane present at the periphery of skull bones
-ossification of the skull is not complete at birth
what is endochondral ossification?
-formation of all bones except dermal bones (mandible, clavicle, flat & cranial bones)
-begins in fetus within weeks
what are the 3 parts of the epiphysis structure?
-articular cartilage: cartilage found at the ends of the bones
-bony epiphysis: formed from the 2nd ossification center
-epiphyseal plate: the plate of cartilage between the diaphysis and epiphysis
what is longitudinal bone growth?
-growth in length
-occurs at epiphyseal plate
-growth inreases at epiphyseal face and is converted to bone at the diaphyseal face
what is appositional growth?
-growth in length is accompanied by growth in diameter
what are the factors involved in bone formation and maintenance?
-vitamin D: promotes uptake of calcium in intestines
-vitamin C: promotes collagen formation
-calcium: needed to form calcium phosphate matrix
-thyroxine: overall regulator of growth
-calcitonin: moves calcium from blood to bone for storage
-estrogen and testosterone: promote surges and cessation of bone growth
what are the factors affecting bone remodeling?
-Blood level of Calcium: a low level activates osteoclasts; regulated by parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
-Stress(compression and tension): when applied to bone it determines the shape of the bone (Wolf's law)

-bone is constantly being remodeled even if no shape change is evident-
what are the differences between the adult and child skeleton?
-several juvenile bones fuse to form single bones in adults

-sternum: formed from manubrium, body and xiphoid process
-os coxae: formed from ilium, ischium and pubis
-sacrum: formed from 5 fused vertebrae
-coccyx: formed from 2-3 fused vertebrae
-mandible: forms from 2 bones fusing
-frontal bone: forms from 2 bones fusing
what is (hemo)hematopoiesis?
-blood cell formation
-in children, takes place in all bones
-in adults, takes place in proximal epiphyses of major long bones, skull bones, sternum and os coxae
what are the 3 classifications of articulations (joints)?
-synarthrosis: immovable
-amphiarthrosis: slightly movable
-diarthrosis: movable with a synovial cavity
what are the 3 types of structural joints?
-fibrous joints
-cartilagenous joints
-synovial joints
what are fibrous joints?
-bones joined by fibrous membranes
-most are synarthrotic (immovable)
-contain no joint cavity
ex: sutures, gomphosis (tooth in socket)
what are cartilagenous joints?
-bones connected by fibrocartilage or a cartilage disc
-most are amphiarthrotic (slightly movable)
-no joint cavity
-ex: intravertebral discs, pubic symphisis
what are synovial joints?
-joints that contain a synovial cavity; a fibrous capsule lined with a synovial membrane encloses the joint and secretes synovial fluid to decrease friction
-most are diarthrotic (movable)
what is a ball and socket joint?
-joint with full range of motion
ex: hips and shoulders
what is a hinge joint?
-a uniaxial joint (1 plane)
-limited range of motion
ex: knee, elbow, mandible
what is a pivot joint?
-a joint used for rotation
ex: the axis and atlas of spine
what is a condyloid joint?
-an egg shaped joint
ex: wrist; carpals to metacarpals and carpals to radius & ulna
what is Rickets?
-a bone disorder
-deficiency of vitamin D, the bone fails to calcify forming a large epiphyseal plate
-legs become bowed from weight pushing down
what is osteomalacia?
-a bone disorder
-a loss of bone in adults due to a malabsorption disease
-disease can be either sprue, in which the intestinal lining is flattened leaving less surface area for absorption, or celiacs disease
what is Paget's Disease?
-a bone disorder
-a softening of bone due to excessive osteoclast activity
what is ostemyelitis?
-a bone disorder
-a bone infection, usually staph
-cured by amputation
what is osteoporosis?
-a bone disorder
-the demineralization of bone
-typically seen in women after menopause
-related to arthritis; you lose bone where you want it in osteoporosis, and gain it in the form of bone spurs where you dont, in arthritis
what is bursitis?
-stress causes the inflammation of the bursa, which are fluid filled sacs found wherever there is friction
what is tendonitis?
-an inflammation of the tendon sheath that connects muscle to bone
what is arthritis?
-any disease that affects the arthroses (joints)
-Gout: uric acid crystals deposited in joints
-Osteoarthritis: wear and tear of joints; bone spurs form causing restricted movement
-Rheumatoidarthritis: chronicinflammatory disease; leads to joint fusion and distortion
what are the 2 types of joint injuries?
-subluxation (sprain) - stretched or torn ligaments; slow healing due to low blood supply
-luxation (dislocation) - bones are pulled out alignment; no tissue damage = faster repair
what are fractures?
-broken bones
-classified by the pattern of the break
what is a simple fracture?
-break does not break the skin
-also called closed fracture
what is a compound fracture?
-break causes bone to protrude through the muscle and skin, causes lots of extra damage
-also called open fracture
what is a greenstick fracture?
-an incomplete fracture
-occurring in young children, the bone bends causing only one side to break
what is a complete fracture?
-a break across the entire bone
what is depressed fracture?
-force of impact causes a puncture of the bone
-typically seen in skull
what is a comminuted fracture?
-splinted bone
what is an impacted fracture?
-one bone is fragmented due to another bone ramming into it
what is Pott's fracture?
-the distal end of the fibula breaks off, preventing articulation between the tibia and fibula
what is Colle's fracture?
-fracture to the distal end of the radius
-due to putting out hands to stop a fall
what is closed reduction fracture treatment?
-treatment in which bone can be manipulated back into place using x-rays for correct positioning
what is an open reduction fracture treatment?
-treatment in which the body must be surgically openend to correctly position bone