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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is a membrane?
-it is formed by the union of 2 or more tissues (the simplest combination of tissues)
- there are epithelial, connective and cutaneous membranes
what are the epithelial membranes?
-serous and mucous membranes.
-contain epithelium and connective tissues; the epithelium varies, but the connective tissue is always areolar tissue (called lamina propria)
what are mucous membranes?
-the line body cavities that are open to the outside
-made of lamina propria (connective tissue) and varying epithelium
-stratified squamous epithelium and C.T form mucous membranes that line the mouth and esophagus
-columnar epithelium and C.T form mucous membranes that line the stomach and intestines
-transitional epithelium and C.T form mucous membranes found in the bladder
-PSCCEwGC and C.T. form mucous membranes in the trachea and bronchi
what are serous membranes?
-line closed cavities, secreting watery serous fluid
-DOUBLE LAYERED: Parietal layer always lines the cavity, Visceral layer always lines the organs within the cavity
what is the pleura?
-the serous membrane in the pleural (thoracic) cavity
-parietal pleura lines the thoracic cavity
-visceral pleura lines the exterior of the lungs
what is the pericardium?
-serous membrane in the cardiac cavity
-parietal pericadium lines the cardiac cavity
-visceral pericardium covers the heart surface
what is the peritoneum?
-serous membrane in the abdominopelvic cavity
-parietal peritoneum lines the abdominopelvic cavity
-visceral peritoneum covers the organs in the cavity
what is mesentary?
-forms when the parietal and visceral peritoneum unite at the dorsal body wall
-suspends organs in cavity
what is deep fascia?
-deep to superficial fascia
-composed of dense white fibrous & dense elastic tissue
-serves as connective tissue wrappings of muscles, bones and cartilage
what are synovial membranes?
-membranes that line the inside of joint capsules
-made of dense white fibrous and areolar tissue with elastic fibers and adipose tissue
-secrete watery synovial fluid that keeps joints lubricated
what are connective tissue membranes?
-composed of 2 or more connective tissues
-also called fibrous membranes
what is the superficial fascia?
-C.T. membrane composed of areolar and adipose tissue
-forms hypodermis under the skin
-site of edema
what is the periosteum?
-dense white fibrous connective tissue
-covers bones
what is the perichondrium?
-dense white fibrous connective tissue
-covers cartilage
what is dura mater?
-dense white fibrous connective tissue
-covers and protects the brain and spinal cord
what is the cutaneous membrane?
-the integumentary system
what are glands?
-epithelial tissue specialized to secrete a product different from blood or interstitial fluid
-derived from epithelial membranes covering adjacent surfaces
-synthesize macromolecules: protein in the form of insulin secreted form the pancreas, lipids in the form of sebum secreted by the sebaceous glands, glycoproteins in the form of saliva, or all 3 in the form of breast milk secreted by mammary glands
what are exocrine glands?
-glands that carry secretions to an epithelial surface using a duct
what are the exocrine gland classifications?
-merocrine glands
-holocrine glands
-apocrine glands
what are merocrine glands?
-glands whose secretions leave the cell with NO loss of cellular material
-the pancreas, salivary glands, and some sweat glands
-most exocrine glands are this type
what are holocrine glands?
-glands in which the entire cell and its contents are shed along with the secretion
-cell is destroyed by this process
-sebaceous glands
what are apocrine glands?
-glands in which the apex of the cell pinches off and some cellular contents are lost by the process
-large sweat glands and mammary glands
what are the 3 shapes of exocrine glands?
what are tubular exocrine glands?
-exocrine glands that are shaped like a tube
-may be either coiled tubular, branched, with many tubes, or compound, with many branches and each branch having several tubes
what are acinar exocrine glands?
-flask shaped, sac-like exocrine glands
-may be either branched acinar or compound acinar
what are tubuloacinar exocrine glands?
-exocrine glands that look like a cock and balls
what are endocrine glands?
-glands formed from epithelial membranes but the duct connection to the surface degenerates and is lost
-secretions are called hormones and are released into interstitial fluid, picked up and distributed by circulatory system
-form glands: heterocrine and mucous glands, and cells: goblet and serous cells
what are heterocrine glands?
-a mixed, exocrine and endocrine gland
-has different distinct cell types
what are mucous glands?
-unicellular glands found in digestive and respiratory systems
what is a goblet cell?
-a secretory cell
-secretes a viscous substance called Mucin, a glycoprotein
what are serous cells?
-cells that are common in the digestive system and salivary glands
-secretion is watery, but very high in enzymes
what are the functions of the cutaneous membrane?
-to prevent dehydration
-to prevent infection
-protection from ultraviolet rays
-thermoregulation via: vasodilation (to lose heat), vasoconstriction (to retain heat) and perspiration (cooling)
-the major organ of sensation
-excretion of water, salts and urea
-synthesizes vitamin D
what is the epidermis?
-uppermost 4 - 5 layers of cells
-made of stratified squamous epithelium
-anchored to basement membrane
-no blood vessels of its own, blood vessels of the dermis penetrate via Volkman's canals
-contains keratinocytes, merkel's cells, and melanocytes
-may be thick or thin; when thin it lacks the stratum lucidum, and when thick stratum lucidum is present and there are many more layers of keratinzed cells in the stratum corneum
what are keratinocytes?
-most predominant cell in epidermis
-synthesizes keratin
what are merkel's cells?
-the only touch receptor (neuron) in the epidermis
what are melanocytes?
-cells that synthesize pigment (melanin)
what are the 5 layers of the epidermis?
-stratum basale
-stratum spinosum
-stratum granulosum
-stratum lucidum (only present in thick skin)
-stratum corneum
what is the stratum basale?
-the lowermost layer of the epidermis
-one layer of cuboidal cells anchored by basement membrane to the dermis
-only epidermal layer in which cells divide mitotically; older cells die as they are pushed upward away from the dermis and its blood vessels carrying nutrients
-MELANOCYTES are present in this layer
-MERKEL'S CELLS are present in this layer
what is the stratum spinosum?
-8 - 10 rows of polyhedral cells
what is the stratum germinativum?
-the stratum basale and the stratum spinosum together
what is the stratum granulosum?
-3 - 5 rows of cells
-nuclei are dying and bcome pycnotic (dark staining)
-cells contain keratohyaline
what is keratohyaline?
-the precursor to keratin
-evidence that cells are dying
-first seen in the stratum granulosum
what is keratin?
-a waxy protein which waterproofs the skin
-made from eleidin
what is the stratum lucidum?
-epidermal layer only found in thick skin, such as the soles of the feet
-cells are clear and transparent
-keratohyaline has been converted to eleidin
what is the stratum corneum?
-the uppermost epidermal layer
-25 - 30 rows of flat dead scalelike squamous cells
-filled with keratin
what is the dermis?
-lower layer of the cutaneous membrane
-composed of dense irregular connective tissue with numerous collagen, elastic and reticular fibers
-contains blood vessels, nerve receptors, sebaceous and sweat glands, hair follicles and hair, nails and muscle fibers
-divided into 2 regions: papillary and reticular
what is the papillary region?
-upper layer of the dermis
-cone like projections called papilla
-forms dermal ridges called fingerprints
what are meissner's corpuscles?
-receptors in the papilla of dermis for light touch
what are naked nerve endings?
-receptors in the papilla of the dermis for pain
what are capillary roots?
-found in the papilla of dermis to link arteries and veins located in the dermis and hypodermis below
-can move up and down as large blood vessels constrict and dilate; conserves or dissipates heat
what is reticular region?
-dense irregular connective tissue with bundles of collagen and elastic fibers
what are pacinian corpuscles?
-specialized nerve endings for deep pressure
-located deep in the dermis, and sometimes in the hypodermis
hair and hair follicles
-hair provides protectino for eyes and prevents heat los
-hair follicles forms as stratum basale turns inward growing down into the dermis, forming a tubelike follicle
describe the structure of a hair follicle
-the follicle is a multilayered epidermal sac which forms and encloses the hair
-2 parts: the BULB, which is the enlarged base of the follicle with a small indentation, and the PAPILLA, which receives blood vessels and nerves; has germinal cells which divide to form the cells of the hair
what is the hair root?
-the portion of the hair in the follicle in the dermis and epidermis
-arises from the bulb, cells die as they are pushed upward
-cells are living in the bulb, dying the root, and dead in the shaft
what is the hair shaft?
-the portion of the hair protruding from the follicle above the skin
-3 parts: Cuticle - transparent, waxy protective outer layer of hair, Cortex - solid middle layer, filled with pigment granules, and the Medulla - the hollow center of the hair composed of dead cells and air spaces
waht is the arrector pilli muscle?
-smooth muscle going from hair follicle to stratum basale
-contraction causes hair to stand on end
-causes a layer of insulation in animals, only goosebumps in man
what are the sebaceous glands?
-glands always found with hair follicles
-compound acinar holocrine gland
-located in dermis
-secretes sebum to keep skin and hair lubricated and flexible
what are eccrine sweat glands?
-the most common gland in the body
-coiled tubular epithelial glands which secrete a watery substance (sweat), which contains salt, urea and NH3
-thermoregulatory gland
-excretory gland
what are apocrine sweat glands?
-large sweat glands located in axilla (armpits) and pubic areas
-simple branched tubular gland
-viscerous secretion is high in protein resulting in body odor due to bacterial breakdown of proteins in secretion
what are ceruminous glands?
-glands that secrete ear wax
-modified sudoriferous gland
-simple coiled tubular gland
what are sudoriferous glands?
-sweat glands that are not associated with hair
what are the 3 factors that determine overall skin color?
what is carotene?
-yellow to orange pigment derived from beta carotene
-adds yellow or tawney tones to skin
-protects agains ultraviolet rays
how does blood affect skin tone?
-the less the other tones dominate the more we see pink tones due to the presence of capillaries under the skin
-in some people capillaries are very deep set and skin is paler than others
what is melanin?
-substance produces by melanocytes in stratum basale
-released in vessicles (melanosomes); migrate into upper layers of epidermis, mostly the stratum spinosum
-the ratio of melanocytes to basal cells, 1:4 - 1:20 determines how dark skin is
-sunlight stimulates melanocytes to increase the rate of melanin synthesis
what is melanoma?
-cancer of the melanocytes
-fatal unless caught early and surgically removed; melanocytes are found low in the skin's layers, cancer can easily migrate into the blood stream and travel throughout the body
-sunblock DOES NOT prevent
what is basal & squamous cell cancer?
-cancer of the basal or spinosum cells
-basal cell cancer is relatively treatable
-squamous cell cancer is often fatal but relatively uncommon
-sunblock prevents both
what is thermoregulation?
-response of skin to increased or decreased temperature
-the hypothalamus, in the thyroid, is the thermostat; receives info from receptors in the skin and blood and sends nerve impulses to skin and muscles
what are epidermal ridges?
-fingerprints and planes of clevage
-body is marked by ridges and grooves; either straight or as loops and whirls
-due to arrangement of dermal papilla
-sweatglands open into ridges; fingerprints are actually condensation from the sweat glands left behind on surfaces