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108 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Kelley - People consider 3 things when they make attributions.
Consistency-same way over time.
Distinctiveness-Unique to situation.
Consensus-How do others behave.

*Internal=high consistency, low distinctiveness and consensus
*External=high in all
Abramson and Alloy
Depressed persons are sometimes more realistic in their appraisals than are persons with normal mood.
Non-depressed have "illusion of control."
Depressed are "sadder but wiser."
One of the most significant problems resulting from the fundamental attribution bias.
Blaming the Victim
Availability Heuristic
People estimate the likelihood of a situation by how easily they can recall it.
Representative Heuristic
People make judgements about people or events based on what they believe is a typical example of a particular category.
Simulation Heuristic
People develop mental images of situations and then use these mental images to make judgements about facts in their lives.
Kelley's Personal Construct Theory
People are scientists.
Views people as active and future oriented.
Self-Verification Theory
People are motivated to confirm their self-concept, even if it is negative.
Behavioral Confirmation
People are motivated to confirm the expectations that others have of them.
Self-Enhancement Theory
People are motivated to think favorably of themselves and behave in ways that cause others to see them favorably as well.
Sleeper Effect
Involves people forgetting the source of communication over time, but remembering the message.
Message must engender a lot of fear, be believable, and specific instructions for avoiding the danger must be offered.
Schacter's Two Factor Theory
Experience of emotion is a function of both physiological arousal and cognitive labeling. (external cues)
Need Complimentarity
People often choose partners who are different in terms of personality.
JW Berry
Assimilation(whole sale taking on of majority culture)
Separation(Only own culture)
Integration(own and majority culture)
Marginalization(not own culture and not majority culture)
RR Troiden - Gay and Lesbian Identity Development
Sensitization-before puberty
Identity Confusion-17-18y.o. homosexual feelings, but denial
Identity Assumption-19-22 y.o. Manage social stigma. Homosexual identity, but negative feelings.
Commitment-22-23 y.o. Integration.
Minority Identity Development Model
Conformity-prefers dominant culture
Dissonance-appreciate aspects of minority and question dominant
Resistance(Immersion)-prefer minority
Introspection-deeper analysis of attitudes and feelings
Integrative Awareness-Appreciative and critical of both
Cross's Model of Black Identity Development
Internalization(integrative awareness)
Helm's White Racial Identity Model
Contact-don't recognize racism and white privilege
Disintegration-uncomfortable with racism
Reintegration-white identity and superiority
Pseudo-Independence-Questioning racism
Immersion/Emersion-self examination and information seeking
Autonomy-new definition of being white and openness
New Entrants into the Work Force that are Minority
Embryonic Period
2 weeks to 8 to 12 weeks
Almost all birth defects occur during the first trimester.
Fetal Period
8 to 12 weeks until birth
Sexual Dimorphism
Overall, humans exhibit less than other species.
It is clearly evident in the human brain that SD exists.
Moro Reflex
Baby extends legs, arms, and fingers and arches the back in response to being startled.
Babinski Reflex
Baby spreads out toes and twists foot when the sole of foot is stroked.
Social Smile
Emerges at 2 months.
Infant smiles when a face is presented.
Brain at Birth
25 to 33% of adult size
2 y.o.-75%
5 y.o.-90%
Significant plasticity or flexibility in functioning until 7 or 8 y.o.
Handedness and Footedness
Established by 7 or 8 y.o.
Social Buffer Hypothesis
A good support network can reduce the risk of emtional distress. Not so much the size of the network, but the person's perception of having an adequate social network.
First Word
10 to 14 months
Holophrasic Speech
12 to 18 months
Babies use a single word or syllable to express a complete thought.
smallest unit of speech
smallest meaningful unit of speech
Telegraphic Speech
18 to 24 months
Child puts together two words to express an idea
Sensorimotor Stage
Object Permanence
Symbolic Representation
Preoperational Stage
Intuitive Thinking
Phenomenalistic Causality
Concrete Operational Stage
Operational Thought
Formal Operational Stage
Abstract Concepts
Criticism of Piaget
Underestimated childrens' abilities.
Did not sufficiently address cultural and educational influences on cognitive development.
Vygotsky's Social Development Theory of Cognition
Cognitive development results from social interaction.
Emphasized the influence of adults more than Piaget.
Zone of Proximal Development-development level just above child's current level (instruction targetted here)
Scaffolding and Reciprocal Teaching
Short Term Memory
Primary Memory-passive holding tank
Working Memory-briefly holds and manipulates info (declines with age)
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development
Linked to cognitive development.
Heteronomous Morality-5 to 10; constraint dominates and think rigidly about morality.
Autonomous Morality-10+; morality of cooperation and flexibility.
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
Cognitive Development
Preconventional Morality-4 to 10 y.o. punishment and reward.
Conventional Morality-10 to 13 y.o. Approval
PostConventional Morality-13+ Right, fair, and just
Development of conscience in children is related to early temperment and parenting styles.
(high inhibitory control and low impulsivity)
Oral Phase
trust vs. mistrust (hope)
Anal Phase
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Will)
Phallic Phase
Initiative vs. Guilt (Purpose)
Latency Phase
Industry vs. Inferiority (Competence)
Genital Phase
Identity vs. Role Confusion (Fidelity)
Normal Infantile Autism
1st month
Baby is unaware of external world.
2-4 months
baby and mother are one
5-10 months
stranger anxiety
10-16 months
ability to physically separate from the mother.
Separation Anxiety
16-24 months
need for mother to share child's new skills and experiences
Object Constancy
2-3 years
Ability to maintain image of mother when she is not present.
Ability to unify the good and bad into a whole representation.
Children of Authoritarian Parents
Moody, irritable, discontented, withdrawn, distrustful, aggressive, and tend to have more bx disorders.
"Conflicted Irritable"
Children of Permissive Indifferent Parents
poor self-control, are demanding, minimally compliant, and have poor interpersonal skills.
Children of Permissive Indulgent Parents
impulsive, immature, and out of control.
Children of Authoritative Parents
competent, confident, independent, cooperative, and at ease in social situations.
"energetic friendly self reliant"
Stages of Gender Role Development
Gender Roles
Gender Identity (3 y.o.)
Gender Constancy (5 or 6 y.o.)
Racial Awareness
3 or 4 y.o.
Solitary Play
2 y.o.
Child plays alone.
Parallel Play
2 y.o.
Child plays independently, but next to other children.
Associative Play
2-3 y.o.
Interacts with other children and shares toys.
Cooperative Play
2-3 y.o.
Child is part of a group that has some common goal.
Social Referencing
1 y.o.
Child uses cues from another person, such as mother, to deal with affective uncertainty.
Mental Retardation
deficits in adaptive functioning in 2 areas (communication, self-care, home living, social skills, use of community resources, self-direction, academic skills, work, leisure, health, and safety)
Onset before 18
Prenatal (Embryonic)
More common in males
Learning Disorder
Must be a significant discrepancy (1 to 2 SD) between IQ and academic achievement.
Considered normal until 2 or 3 y.o.
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Severe and pervasive problems in several areas of development including: reciprocal social interactions, communication, or presence of stereotyped bx, interests, and activities.
Autistic Disorder
Impairment in communication, social interaction, and a restricted repertoire of activities.
Onset before 3 y.o.
Prognosis best=late onset, higher IQ, when child speaks before 5 y.o.
4 to 5 xs in males.
Rett's Disorder
Only females.
Between 5 and 48 months, sudden deceleration of head growth, stereotyped hand movements, social disengagement, and poorly coordinated movements. Impaired language development and psychomotor retardation.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Normal development for 2 years.
Loss of acquired skills in 2 areas: language, social skills, play, motor skills, and bowel/bladder control. Abnormalities in 2: social interaction, communication, restriction of bx, interests, and activities.
More common in males.
Asperger's Disorder
Impairment in social interaction and a restricted repertoire of bx, but no language delays or cognitive delays.
More common in males.
Persistent pattern (6 months) of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Some sx must have been present before 7 y.o. Impairment must occur in at least 2 settings.
6-9 times more in males
Presence of 2: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic bx, and negative sx. Only 1 sx is required if delusions are bizarre, hallucinations involve running commentary, or if 2 or more voices are conversing.
Person must be functioning at a level markedly below normal.
At least 6 months.
Schizophrenia, Catatonic Type
Motoric immobility, excessive and purposeless motor activity, negativism or mutism, peculiarities of voluntary movement, echolalia.
Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Type
Meets dx for schizophrenia, but does not meet criteria for any other subtype.
Schizophrenia, Residual Type
Absence of prominent delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized/catatonic bx, but continuing evidence of schizophrenia such as, negative sx.
Schizophrenia, Paranoid Type
Preoccupation with one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations
No prominent disorganized speech, catatonic bx, flat or inappropriate affect.
To Determine Schizophrenia Subtype
Schizophrenic Brains
Enlargement of lateral and third ventricles
Smaller cerebral cortex
Smaller thalamus
Decreased frontal lobe activity
Schizophreniform Disorder
Identical to schizophrenia, but lasts 1 to 6 months.
Delusional Disorder
Non-bizarre delusions of at least one month's duration.
Bx is relatively unimpaired and is not obviously odd.
Brief Psychotic Disorder
One or more: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or grossly disorganized or catatonic bx. Lasts 1 day to 1 month.
Somatization Disorder
Hx of recurrent and multiple somatic complaints, which begins before age 30, and is of at least several years duration.
More common in women.
Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder
When there are one or more physical complaints that cannot be fully explained medically and the duration is at least 6 months.
Conversion Disorder
One or more sx or deficits affecting voluntary motor or sensory function that suggest a neurological or other general medical condition.
More common in women.
ex. paralysis
Enables pt. to keep ucs conflict out of awareness.
Factitious Disorder
Physical or psychological sx that are intentionally produced.
Assume sick role.
Cluster A
Odd, Eccentric
Paranoid PD
Schizoid PD
Schizotypal PD
Cluster B
Dramatic, Emotional, and Erratic
Antisocial PD
Borderline PD
Histrionic PD
Narcissistic PD
Cluster C
Anxious and Fearful
Avoidant PD
Dependent PD
Obsessive Compulsive PD
Borderline Intellectual Functioning
IQ = 71 to 84
Coded on Axis II
Recent Memory
Intermediate Memory
lasts 2 weeks
Remote Memory
Lasts 2 years or more.
Intelligence is a single factor.
"G Factor"
7 distinct primary mental abilities.
Most empirically validated theory of human intelligence.
3 levels: "G", 10 broad cognitive abilities, 70 narrow cognitive abilities.
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
8 distinct intelligences
Relative strengths and weaknesses among 8 areas
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Focuses on process rather than product.
3 aspects of intelligence: internal components, capacity to adapt to environmental changes, ability to apply past experience to current problems.
Verbal Comprehension Index
Perceptual Organization Index
Picture Completion
Block Design
Matrix Reasoning
Working Memory Index
Digit Span
Letter Number Sequencing
Processing Speed Index
Digit Symbol Coding
Symbol Search
Best Estimate of VIQ
Best Estimate of PIQ
Block Design
Best "hold tests" - good indicators of premorbid functioning
Chronic Otitis Media
Long term deficits in language capacities.
Depressed VCI.