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80 Cards in this Set

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Abrahamic Covenant
The second covenant in Genesis, Yahweh promises a son, countless descendants, land, blessings, and a special covenant relationship.
Noachan Covenant
The first covenant in Genesis, it emphasizes the sacredness of life and faitfulness of God, who promises to never again destroy the world.
Davidic Covenant
God promises to keep King David's royal heirs on Judah's throne forever.
Mosaic Covenant
God's help and protection depend almost entirely on Israel's loyal obedience to divine law (Ten Commandments).
Amos
A Judean shepherd; denounced the religious and social practices of the northern kingdom during 786-746 BCE; first prophet to have words recorded in a book.
Apocrypha
Means "hidden" books in Greek; noncanonical or deuterocanonical literature.
Baruch
Secretary and friend of Jeremiah; recorded Jeremiah's message.
apodictic law
law cast in the form of unconditional demands ("thou shalt not").
Assyria
A large territory centered along the upper Tigris River in Mesopotamia; the empire that dominated the Near East from the eleventh to the seventh century BCE and whose leaders destroyed Israel in 721 BCE and besieged Jerusalem in 701 BCE. Destroyed in 621 BCE.
Babylon
City on the middle Euphrates; capital of both the Old and Neo-Babylonian empires. Destroyed Jerusalem and its Temple (587 BCE) and fell to the Persians in 539 BCE.
canon
A standard of measure by which a religious community judges certain writings to be authoritative, usually of divine origin. Ex. The Hebrew Bible is a canon of Judaism.
case law
Law expressed in conditional terms: if such an act is committed, such will be the punishment.
Court History
Also called the Succession Narrative, it is the account of David's reign and Solomon's succession to Israel's throne, the narrative underlying passages in 2 Samuel and 1 Kings.
Covenant Code
A name given to the collection of ancient Hebrew laws found in Exodus, often called the Book of the Covenant.
cult legend
The oral tradition explaining or validating the sacredness of a particular place or shrine, such as the Genesis stories about Jacob's mystical experiences at Bethel or Peniel.
cuneiform
A wedge-shaped writing that originated in ancient Sumer about 3000 BCE and spread throughout Mesopotamia.
Cyrus the Great (of Persia)
Founder of the Persian Empire and conqueror of Babylon (539 BCE), who liberated the Jews from captivity and decreed their return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple; has been called yahweh's "shepherd" and his "Anointed" or "Messiah."
Dead Sea Scrolls
Biblical and other religious manuscripts dating from the second century BCE to the first century CE, found in caves near Qumran on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea.
Deborah
A judge and prophetess who, with Barak, helped bring about Israel's victories over the Canaanite forces of Sisera.
Decalogue
Another term for the Ten Commandments.
diaspora
Means "scattering." Refers to the distribution of the Jews outside their Palestinian homeland, such as the many Jewish communities established throughout the Greco-Roman world.
Deuteronomist
The unknown writer who complied and edited the present form of the Book of Deuteronomy.
Deuteronomistic History (DH)
The Book of Deuteronomy and the books of the Former Prophets (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings) as compiled and revised from older sources by an anonymous author. Compiled late in Josiah's reign (c. 610 BCE), edited in 587 BCE and during the Babylonian exile.
documentary hypothesis
A scholarly theory associated with Julius Wellhausen that argues that the Pentateuch is not the work of one author but the result of many generations of anonymous writers, revisers, and editors: J (the Yahwist), E (the Elohist), D (the Deuteronomist), and P (the Priestly component).
Ehud
The left-handed judge from the tribe of Benjamin who murdered the obese Moabite king, Eglon, at Jericho and then led an Israelite army to rout the Moabite invaders.
Elijah
A fiercely Yahwist prophet from the northern kingdom whose anti-Baalism and attacks on Ahab's dynasty had a tremendous impact on Israel's political course during the ninth century BCE and who shaped his nation's prophetic traditions for centuries thereafter. Carried to heaven in a fiery chariot.
Elisha
A ninth-century CE prophet in the northern kingdom, successor to Elijah. Elisha was a clairvoyant who worked numerous miracles, including the resuscitation of a dead child.
Elohist
The anonymous author or compiler responsible for the E document or tradition in the Pentateuch. The name arose from his characteristic use of Elohim to denote the Hebrew deity.
etiology
Literally, a statement of causes or origins; a narrative created to explain the origin or meaning of a social practice, topographical feature, ritual, or other factor that arouses the storyteller's interest.
exegesis
A literary term denoting close analysis and interpretation of a text to discover the original author's exact intent and meaning.
Ezekiel
A major prophet of the sixth century BCE, exiled to Babylon, who was distinguished by his strange visions and priestly concerns.
Gilgamesh
Legendary king of Uruk, hero of the Sumero-Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, fragments of which date from shortly after 3000 BCE, describing his adventures battling evil and searching for immortality. The Babylonian version incorporates a story of the Flood narrated by Gilgamesh's ancestor Utnapishtim.
Habakkuk
A prophet of the late seventh or early sixth century BCE, perhaps a Levitical temple musician, and presumed author of the book bearing his name.
Haggai
A postexilic prophet who, with his contemporary Zechariah, urged the restored community fo Jerusalem to rebuild the temple.
Hammurabi
Sixth king of Babylon's First Dynasty (c. 1792-1750 BCE) and founder fo the first Amorite Empire in Mesopotamia. Best remembered for his law code.
Holiness Code
The name given to the body of laws and regulations set forth in Leviticus derives from the code's emphasis on holiness in behavior.
Hosea
An eighth-century prophet active in the northern kingdom from before the death of Jeroboam II (c. 746 BCE) until shortly before its fall to Assyria in 721 BCE; the source of the Book of Hosea, first in the printed list of Minor Prophets.
Isaiah
An eighth-century prophet and counselor of Judean kings, Isaiah of Jerusalem was active from 783-687 BCE.
Second Isaiah
Lived during the Babylonian exile (587-538 BCE) and contributed chapters 40-55.
Third Isaiah
Lived during the postexilic period and contributed Chapters 56-66.
Jeremiah
One of Israel's greatest prophets; warned Jeusalem and its kings of their misdeeds and of coming doom by the Babylonians for approximately forty years (c. 627-587 BCE). Persecuted by government and compatriots for his unpopular message.
Jericho
One of the world's oldest cities, whose ruins lie near an oasis on the west side of the south Jordan River Valley. Its walls crumbled when the Israelites marched around the city.
Jonah
A Zebulunite from Gath-hepher whom Yahweh sent as a prophet to warn Ninevah of its impending doom. Was delivered from death inside a sea monster.
Joseph
The son of Jacob and Rachel, whose brothers were jealous of him and sold him into slavery in Egypt, where his ability to interpret dreams let him rise to power second only to the Pharoah.
Joshua
Moses' military assistant in charge of the Tabernacle and chosen to succeed Moses. Led the Israelites across the Jordan, captured Jericho and 'Ai, warred against the Canaanite kings, allotted land to various tribes, and made a covenant with Yahweh and the people.
Josiah
King of Judah (640-609 BCE). Killed attempting to intercept the Pharoah's army on its way to support Assyria.
Josiah's reform
Reforms (held by King Josiah following 621 BCE) of all centers of worship in Judah.
Jubilee
The sabbatical year described in Leviticus 25:8-24 to be kept every half-century and proclaimed by a trumpet blast on the Day of Atonement. During a Jubilee year, all debts were to be canceled and private property returned to its rightful owners.
judge
Charismatic (spirit-filled) men and women who led Israelite tribes or clans mainly by the force of their character.
lex talonis
The law of strict retaliation, the principle of retributive justice expressed in the Torah command to exact and rejected by Jesus.
Manasseh
Kind of Judah longer than any other Davidic monarch. Known as the most evil ruler of Judah for is encouragement of Baalism, astrology, and human sacrifice.
Messiah
Means "anointed one" in Hebrew.
Micah
A Judean prophet of the late eighth century BCE and younger contemporary of Isaiah of Jerusalem. A rural figure who denounced the evils of urban life and predicted Jerusalem's fall.
Monolatry/ Henotheism
The worship of one god while conceding the existence of others.
Nahum
A prophet who delivered poems rejoiceing in Ninevah's fall and the destruction of the Assyrian Empire (612 BCE).
Nathan
A prophet and plitical counselor at David's court who enunciated the concept of an everlasting Davidic dynasty and denounced the king for his adultery with Bathsheba.
Ninevah
The last capital of the Assyrian Empire, located on the east bank of the Tigris River.
Obadiah
Traditionally recognized as author of the Book of Obadiah, about whom nothing is known. His book is fourth and shortest among the Minor Prophets.
oracle
A divine message or utterance or the person through whom it is conveyed.
Ramses II
Ruler of Egypt who many scholars think was the pharaoh of the Exodus.
Samson
A Nazirite judge of Israel famous for his supernatural strength, aboritve love affair with Delilah, and spectacular destruction of the Philistine temple of Dagon.
Samuel
Israel's last judge, a prophet and seer who also performed priestly functions. Became the greatest influence in Israel's transition from the tribal confederacy to monarchy under Saul, whom he anointed king but later rejected in favor of David.
Saul
First king of Israel, Saul was anointed by Samuel to meen the Philistine crisis.
Septuagint (LXX)
A Greek edition of the Hebrew Bible traditionally attributed to seventy or seventy-two Palestinian scholars during the reign of Ptolemy II. Actually the work of several generations of Alexandrine translaters.
shema
According to the Hebrew Bible, the subterranean region to which the "shades" of all the dead descended, a place of intense gloom, hopelessness, and virtual unconciousness for its inhabitants.
Solomon
Son of David and Bathsheba and Israel's third king, became famous for his wisdom, worshipped other gods than Yahweh, and died leaving his people financially exhausted and politically discontented.
Sumer
The land at the head of the Persian Gulf between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, site of the oldest high civilization in the ancient Near East and traditional homeland of Abraham and his ancestors.
Tanak
A modern name for the Hebrew Bible, an acronym consisting of three consonants that represent the three major divisions of the Bible; the Torah (law), the Nevi'im (Prophets), and the Kethuvium (Writings).
Tetragrammaton
The four consonants (YHWH) making up the sacred name Yahweh, the God of Israel.
theodicy
A rational attempt to understand how an all-good, all-powerful God can permit the existence of evil and undeserved suffering.
theophany
An appearance of a god to a person.
Vulgate
Jerome's Latin translation of the Bible (late fourth century CE), eventually including the Apocrypha, which became the official version of Roman Catholicism.
Yahweh
A rendering of the sacred name of Israel's god, represented almost 7,000 times in the cnonical Hebrew Bible by the four consonants of the Tetragrammaton (YHWH).
Yahwist
The name scholars give the anonymous writer or compiler who produced the J document, the oldest stratum in the Pentateuch.
Zechariah
A Judean prophet, a contemporary of Haggai, urged the returned exiles to rebuild Yahweh's Temple in Jerusalem.
Apocalypse
To "uncover" or "reveal." Refers to a certain kind of literature that purports to foretell the future in terms of symbols and mystical visions and deals primarily with eschatological events.
Daniel
He appears at the Babylonian and Persian royal courts as a sage interpreter of dreams.
Esther
Heroine of the canonical book bearing her name, cousin and adopted daughter of Mordecai, queen of Persia under Xerxes, Esther became a national heroine by delivering her people from a mass slaughter planned by Haman.
Ezra
A postexilic Jewish priest who returned to Jerusalem from Babylon during the reign of the Persian emperor Artaxerxes to promulgate the Mosaic Torah and supervise a reformation of the Jewish religion.
Nehemiah
A Jewish court official living at the Persian capital in Susa who persuaded the emperor Artaxerxes I to rebuild Jerusalem's walls.