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87 Cards in this Set

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Glandular Epithelia:
Modes of Secretion-
Holocrine Secretion
During secretion, the whole cell is packed with secretory products then bursts apart; the secretion is released and the cell dies. Further secretion depends on stem cell division; eg. sebacous glands.
Connective Tissues:
Define
Found throughout the body, but never exposed to the outside; includ bone, fat, and blood;
Connective Tissues:
3 Basic Components
1)Specialized cells
2)Extracellular protein fibers
3)Ground Substance (fluid)
Connective Tissues:
What is the matrix?
The extracellular fibers and ground substance; surrounds the cell; connective tissue consists mostly of matrix.
Connective Tissues:
List its functions
Est. structural framework for the body, transport fluids and disslolved materials, protects delicate organs, supports, surrounds and interconnects other tissue types, stores energy reserves (lipids), defends body from microorgan.
Connective Tissues (CT):
Classification -
Connective Tissue Proper
Refers to CT with many cell types and xtracellular fibers, in diff proportions, in a syrupy ground substance; eg adipose tissue, tendons.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
Fluid Connective Tissues
Distinct cell pop. in a watery matrix of proteins; 2 types, blood and lymph
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
Supporting Connective Tissue
Less diverse cell pop in a matrix of closely packed fibers; 2 types, cartilage (gel matrix) and bone (calcified matrix)
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Fixed cells (define)
Stationary and involved with local maitenance, repair and energy storage; include fibroblasts, fixed macrophages, adipocytes, mesenchymal and melanocytes.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Fixed cells - Fibroblast
always present, most abundant, skinny, produce and maintain all CT fibers; secretes proteins that make large extracell. fibers; also secrete hyaluronan, which makes ground sub. viscous
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Fixed cells - Fixed Macrophage
large, scattered ameboid cells that engulf damaged cells and pathogens; comm. with immune sys
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Fixed cells - Adipocyte
Contain 1 huge lipid droplet, nucleus and organelles squeezed to 1 side, #of cells vary dep. on location.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Fixed cells - Mesenchymal
Stem cells
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Fixed cells - Melanocytes
Synthesize and store melanin, common in epithelium of skin and dermis, det skin color, also found in eyes.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells (define)
Cells of the CT that defend and repair damaged tissues.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Free Macrophage
Large phagocytic wandering cells, in the blood called monocytes, provide front line defense to tissue.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Mast Cells
Small, mobile, found near blood vessels, cytoplasm filled with histamine and heparin (chem. that are released after injury or infection; cause inflamation)
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Lymphocytes
Migrate throughout body, focus on areas of tissue damage and dev. into plasma cells that make antibodies.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Microphages
Called neutrophils and eosinophils; are phagocytic blood cells; used to attract microphages to damaged or infected area.
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Collagen Fibers
long, straigh, unbranched, strongest and most pop. fiber in CT proper; flexible, tensile strength; include tendons (connect muscle to bone) and ligaments (connect bone to bone)
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Reticular Fibers
Thinner than collagen; branch and are woven; tough but flexible; found in organs like spleen and liver, where they create stroma that supports the cells of the organs.
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Elastic Fibers
Contain the protein elastin; they branch and are wavy, dominate elastic ligaments, innterconnect vertebrae.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper:
Ground Substance determines what about the CT?
Along with cell proportion and fibers, ground substance det. whether CT will be loose or dense CT.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue (define)
These tissues are the packing material of the body, fill space b/w organs, cushion, and support epithelia; surround and support blood vessels and nerves, store fat and direct diffused materials; 3 types
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue - Areolar Tissue
least specialized, contains every cell type and fiber of CT proper; open framework, sep. skin from deep structures; provides padding, extensive circulatory supply, contain capillaries
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue -
Adipose Tissue
like areolar tissue, but contain more adipocytes; provides padding, cuchions shocks, insulator, packs and fills space around structures
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue -
Adipose Tissue - white and brown fat
pale color (white), deep color from mitochondria (brown); metabolically active; can't divide
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues (def)
Often called collagenous tissue b/c collagen fibers are the dominant fiber type; 2 types: reg and irreg
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues -
Dense Regular CT
Collagen fibers tightly packed; include tendons, aponeuroses (cover muscles), elastic tissue and ligaments.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues -
Dense Irregular CT
No consistent pattern; provides strenght and support; makes up the dermis; can form sheath around cartlage (not at joints) and capsules surrounding organs.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Free Macrophage
Large phagocytic wandering cells, in the blood called monocytes, provide front line defense to tissue.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Mast Cells
Small, mobile, found near blood vessels, cytoplasm filled with histamine and heparin (chem. that are released after injury or infection; cause inflamation)
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Lymphocytes
Migrate throughout body, focus on areas of tissue damage and dev. into plasma cells that make antibodies.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Microphages
Called neutrophils and eosinophils; are phagocytic blood cells; used to attract microphages to damaged or infected area.
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Collagen Fibers
long, straigh, unbranched, strongest and most pop. fiber in CT proper; flexible, tensile strength; include tendons (connect muscle to bone) and ligaments (connect bone to bone)
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Reticular Fibers
Thinner than collagen; branch and are woven; tough but flexible; found in organs like spleen and liver, where they create stroma that supports the cells of the organs.
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Elastic Fibers
Contain the protein elastin; they branch and are wavy, dominate elastic ligaments, innterconnect vertebrae.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Free Macrophage
Large phagocytic wandering cells, in the blood called monocytes, provide front line defense to tissue.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper:
Ground Substance determines what about the CT?
Along with cell proportion and fibers, ground substance det. whether CT will be loose or dense CT.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue (define)
These tissues are the packing material of the body, fill space b/w organs, cushion, and support epithelia; surround and support blood vessels and nerves, store fat and direct diffused materials; 3 types
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Mast Cells
Small, mobile, found near blood vessels, cytoplasm filled with histamine and heparin (chem. that are released after injury or infection; cause inflamation)
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue - Areolar Tissue
least specialized, contains every cell type and fiber of CT proper; open framework, sep. skin from deep structures; provides padding, extensive circulatory supply, contain capillaries
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Free Macrophage
Large phagocytic wandering cells, in the blood called monocytes, provide front line defense to tissue.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Lymphocytes
Migrate throughout body, focus on areas of tissue damage and dev. into plasma cells that make antibodies.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue -
Adipose Tissue
like areolar tissue, but contain more adipocytes; provides padding, cuchions shocks, insulator, packs and fills space around structures
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Microphages
Called neutrophils and eosinophils; are phagocytic blood cells; used to attract microphages to damaged or infected area.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue -
Adipose Tissue - white and brown fat
pale color (white), deep color from mitochondria (brown); metabolically active; can't divide
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Mast Cells
Small, mobile, found near blood vessels, cytoplasm filled with histamine and heparin (chem. that are released after injury or infection; cause inflamation)
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Collagen Fibers
long, straigh, unbranched, strongest and most pop. fiber in CT proper; flexible, tensile strength; include tendons (connect muscle to bone) and ligaments (connect bone to bone)
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Reticular Fibers
Thinner than collagen; branch and are woven; tough but flexible; found in organs like spleen and liver, where they create stroma that supports the cells of the organs.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues (def)
Often called collagenous tissue b/c collagen fibers are the dominant fiber type; 2 types: reg and irreg
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Lymphocytes
Migrate throughout body, focus on areas of tissue damage and dev. into plasma cells that make antibodies.
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Elastic Fibers
Contain the protein elastin; they branch and are wavy, dominate elastic ligaments, innterconnect vertebrae.
Connective Tissues:
Classification -
CT Proper cell type:
Wandering Cells - Microphages
Called neutrophils and eosinophils; are phagocytic blood cells; used to attract microphages to damaged or infected area.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues -
Dense Regular CT
Collagen fibers tightly packed; include tendons, aponeuroses (cover muscles), elastic tissue and ligaments.
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Collagen Fibers
long, straigh, unbranched, strongest and most pop. fiber in CT proper; flexible, tensile strength; include tendons (connect muscle to bone) and ligaments (connect bone to bone)
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues -
Dense Irregular CT
No consistent pattern; provides strenght and support; makes up the dermis; can form sheath around cartlage (not at joints) and capsules surrounding organs.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper:
Ground Substance determines what about the CT?
Along with cell proportion and fibers, ground substance det. whether CT will be loose or dense CT.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue (define)
These tissues are the packing material of the body, fill space b/w organs, cushion, and support epithelia; surround and support blood vessels and nerves, store fat and direct diffused materials; 3 types
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Reticular Fibers
Thinner than collagen; branch and are woven; tough but flexible; found in organs like spleen and liver, where they create stroma that supports the cells of the organs.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue - Areolar Tissue
least specialized, contains every cell type and fiber of CT proper; open framework, sep. skin from deep structures; provides padding, extensive circulatory supply, contain capillaries
Connective Tissue Fibers:
-Elastic Fibers
Contain the protein elastin; they branch and are wavy, dominate elastic ligaments, innterconnect vertebrae.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue -
Adipose Tissue
like areolar tissue, but contain more adipocytes; provides padding, cuchions shocks, insulator, packs and fills space around structures
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper:
Ground Substance determines what about the CT?
Along with cell proportion and fibers, ground substance det. whether CT will be loose or dense CT.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue -
Adipose Tissue - white and brown fat
pale color (white), deep color from mitochondria (brown); metabolically active; can't divide
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue (define)
These tissues are the packing material of the body, fill space b/w organs, cushion, and support epithelia; surround and support blood vessels and nerves, store fat and direct diffused materials; 3 types
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues (def)
Often called collagenous tissue b/c collagen fibers are the dominant fiber type; 2 types: reg and irreg
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue - Areolar Tissue
least specialized, contains every cell type and fiber of CT proper; open framework, sep. skin from deep structures; provides padding, extensive circulatory supply, contain capillaries
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues -
Dense Regular CT
Collagen fibers tightly packed; include tendons, aponeuroses (cover muscles), elastic tissue and ligaments.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue -
Adipose Tissue
like areolar tissue, but contain more adipocytes; provides padding, cuchions shocks, insulator, packs and fills space around structures
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Loose Connective Tissue -
Adipose Tissue - white and brown fat
pale color (white), deep color from mitochondria (brown); metabolically active; can't divide
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues -
Dense Irregular CT
No consistent pattern; provides strenght and support; makes up the dermis; can form sheath around cartlage (not at joints) and capsules surrounding organs.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues (def)
Often called collagenous tissue b/c collagen fibers are the dominant fiber type; 2 types: reg and irreg
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues -
Dense Regular CT
Collagen fibers tightly packed; include tendons, aponeuroses (cover muscles), elastic tissue and ligaments.
Connective Tissue:
CT Proper Subdivision:
Dense Connective Tissues -
Dense Irregular CT
No consistent pattern; provides strenght and support; makes up the dermis; can form sheath around cartlage (not at joints) and capsules surrounding organs.
Connective Tissue:
Classification -
Fluid Connective Tissues: blood
Contains blood cells and fragments called formed elements: red and white blood cells, plasma and platelets.
Connective Tissue:
Classification -
Fluid Connective Tissues: lymph
forms fluid that enters the lymphatic vessels that's monitored by the immune system
Connective Tissue:
Classification -
Supporting Connective Tissues:
Cartilage
Contains chrondocytes (cartilage cells, matrix is gel-like, avascular, sep from tissues by perichondrium; appositional and interstitial growth.
Connective Tissue:
Classification -
Supporting Connective Tissues:
Cartilage Type - Hyaline
most common, matrix made of packed collagen fibers, weakest type of cartilage, eg. cartilage b/w ribs and sternum
Connective Tissue:
Classification -
Supporting Connective Tissues:
Cartilage Type - Elastic
resiliant and flexible, forms flaps (epiglottis), middle ear airway and cuneiform larynx cartilage.
Connective Tissue:
Classification -
Supporting Connective Tissues:
Cartilage Type - Fibrocartilage
matrix dominated by collagen fibers that are densely woven; durable; found b/w vert., pubic bones; resist compression, absorb shock, prevent bone to bone damage.
Membranes:
Define
formed by epithelia and connective tissue; consists of an epi sheet and underlying CT layer; cover and protect structures and tissues, 4 types
Membranes:
Type - Mucous Membrane
line passageways that comm. w/ exterior, baracade pathogens, lined by simple epithelia
Membrane:
Type: Serous membrane
lines the subdivisions of the ventral body cavity, 3 types that consist of mesothelium: pleura (lungs), pertoneum (peritoneal cavity and organ surfaces), pericardium; transudate fluid present
Membrane:
Type: Cutaneous
AKA the skin, made of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and underlying layer of areolar tissue reinforced by dense CT
Membrane:
Type: Synovial membrane
consists of extensive areolar tissue bounded by an incomplete superficial layer of squamous or cuboidal cells; dev. in CT.
Membrane:
Type: Synovial - how does it differ from epithelial?
No basement, incomplete cellular layer, epi cells derived from adjacent macrophages and fibroblasts