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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cells combine to form?
Tisuues, collections of specialized cells and cell products that perform a relatively limited number of functions.
Histology is the study of what?
the study of tissues
What are the four primary tissue types?
Epithelial tissue
connective tissue
muscle tissue
neural tissue
What does epithelial tissue include?
Epithelia and glands, glands are secretory structures derived from epithelia.
What is an epithelium?
a layer of cells that covers an exposed surface or lines an internal cavity or passageway
What does epithelia cover?
every exposed body surface
What does epithelia line?
the digestive, repiratory, reproductive and urinary tracts - passageways that communicate with the outside world. also lines internal cavitites and passageways, fluid fille chambers of the brain, eye, inner ear, and inner surfaces of blood vessels and the heart
What are the four characteristics of epithelia?
Cellularity, polarity, attachment, avascularity and regeneration.
Characteristics of Epithelia:

-Cellularity
Epithelia are composed of cells bound closely together by cell junctions, versus other tissues, where individual cells are often widely separated by extracellular materials.
Characteristics of Epithelia:

-Polarity
an epithelium always has an exposed surface that faces the exterior of the body or internal space, it has an attached base where it connects to tissues. there is an uneven distribution of cellular components
Characteristics of Epithelia:

-Attachment
the basal surface is bound to a basal lamina, a complex structure produced by the basal surface of epithelium and cells of underlying connective tissue
Characteristics of Epithelia:

-Avascularity
Epithelia don't contain blood vessels, they must obtain nutrients via diffusion or absoption across apical or basal surfaces.
Characteristics of Epithelia:

-Regeneration
damaged cells are continually replaced via stem cells
Functions of Epithelial Tissue:

-Provide physical protection
epithelia protect exposed and internal surfaces from abrasion, dehydration, and destruction by chemical or bio agents
Functions of Epithelial Tissue:

-Control permeability
regulates substances entering and leaving the body
Functions of Epithelial Tissue:

-Provide Sensation
Most epithelia are innervated by senory nerves. Specialized epi cells can detect changes in the environment and convey info to nervous system.
What is a neuroepithelium?
a specialized sensory epithelium found in special sense organs that provide the sensations of smell, taste, sight, equilibrium and hearing.
Functions of Epithelial Tissue:

-Prodcue Specialized Secretions
produce gland cells that are usually scattered - in glandular epithelium most or all epi cells produce secretions
What distinguishes epithelial cells from other body cells?
-They are specialized for the production of secretions, movement of fluids over epi surface, or the movement of fluids thru the epithelium itself. Also their polarity and cilia.
Maintaining the Integrity of the Epithelium:

-Intercellular connection
Epi cells are held together via cell junctions. There is a lot of folding to interlock the cells anc inc surface area. Extensive connections bewteen cells hold them together and barricade chemicals and pathogens. All together this gives the epithelium stregth and stability.
Maintaining the Integrity of the Epithelium:

-Attachment to the Basal Lamina
epi cells are attached to the basal lamina aka basement
Maintaining the Integrity of the Epithelium:

-Maintenance and Renewal
The only way epithelium can maintain its integrity over time is through continual division of stem cells, aka germinative cells, found by the basement.
How do you name epithelia?
Two names, first refers to the cell depth, the second refers to the shape of the surface cell
Classification of Epithelia:
First Name:

-Simmplified epithelium
a single layers of cells convering the basal lamina; relatively thin and fragile; found only in protected areas inside the body.
Classification of Epithelia:
First Name:
-Simple epithelium
-Where are they found?
eg: lining of compartments and passageways like ventral body cavities, heart chambers and blood vessels; characteristic of regions where secretion, absorption or filtration occurs
Classification of Epithelia:
First Name:
-Stratified
several layers of cells above the basal lamina; thicker and sturdier than simple epi, germinative cells are covered by superficial cells
Classification of Epithelia:
First Name
-Stratified
-Where are they found?
in areas subject to mechanical or chemical stresses like the surface of the skin and the lining of the mouth
Classification of Epithelia:
Second Name

-Squamous (squama, plate or scale)
cells are thin, flat ans irregularly shaped like puzzle pieces;nucleous occupies thickest portion, looks like a fired egg
Classification of Epithelium:
Both names together

-Simple squamous epithelium
most delicate type, found in protected regions where absorption occurs, or where a slippery surface reduces friction; eg. alveoili in lungs, inner surfaces of circulatory system
Classification of Epithelia:
Second Name

-What are the two types of simple squamous epithelium?
Mesothelium and Endothelium, the simple squamous epis that line chambers and passageways that don't comm. with the outside world