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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
matter
anything that
has weight and
occupies space
elements
chemical substances with only one type of atom
trace elements
basic chemical substances needed in SMALL quantities
compounds
substance composed of two OR MORE chemically BONDED elements
electrons
small, negatively charged particles that revolve around the nucleus of an atom
ion
an atom OR MOLECULE with an electrical charge
molecule
particle composed of two or more joined atoms
covalent bond
chemical bond formed by electron sharing between atoms
ionic bond
chemical bond formed between two ions by transfer of electrons
inorganic compounds
two or more chemically bonded elements lacking both carbon and hydrogen
acid
substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen ions
base
substance that ionizes in water to release hydroxide ions (OH-) or other ions that combine with hydrogen ions
salt
compound produced by reaction betrween acid and base
pH scale
shorthand notation for the hydrogen ion concentration used to indicate the acidic or alkaline condition of a solution

values range from 0 to 14
atomic structure
nucleus: protons and neutrons
equal in weight

1 or more electrons revolving around
atomic number
number of protons
atomic weight
number of protons plus number of neutrons
electrolyte
substance that ionizes in a water solution
organic compound
substance with two or more chemically bonded elements with carbon
protein
nitrogen containing organic compound composed of joined amino acid molecules
amino acid
organic compound of relatively small molecular size that contains an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH)

structural unit of a protein molecule
enzyme
protein that catalyzes a specific chemical reaction
carbohydrate
organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with a 2:1 RATIO OF HYDROGEN TO OXYGEN ATOMS
monosaccharide
single sugar, such as glucose or fructose
disaccharide
sugar produced by the union of two monosaccharides
polysaccharide
carbohydrate composed of many joined monosaccharides
glucose
monosaccharide in the blood that is the primary source of cellular energy
sucrose
disaccharide; table sugar
glycogen
polysaccharide that stores glucose in liver and muscles
lipids
fats or oils or fatlike compounds that usually have fatty acids in their molecular structure
nucleic acids
substances composed of bonded nucleotides; RNA or DNA