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10 Cards in this Set

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How is a karyotype made?
Cells are collected
They are then stimulated to divide in a culture medium

Cells are stopped during duting metaphase when the chromosomes are compact and condensed

The cells are then killed and spread out onto a slide and dried.

Stains are then applied to the slides and the cells are photographed
what can a karyotype tell us?
They can tell if there is chromosomal abnormalities
What is meiotic nondisjunction?
It is when both members of a homologous pair go into the same daughter cell or during meiosis 2 when the sister chromatids fail to separate and both daughter chromosomes go into the same gamete
. nondisjunction? How can it explain, eg., Down’s syndrome?
Nondisjunction will cause an extra chromosome in the gametes sometimes an offspring inherits and extra chromosome which would be Trisomy or a missing chromosome would cause Monosomy
What are the 4 kinds of chromosomal defects?
Changes is Chromosome number

Deletion and Duplications

Translocation, this is the exchange of chromosomal segments between two nonhomoloogous chromosomes

Inversion, this is when a segment of a chromosomeis turned 180 degree, crossing over with these chromes and regular chromes can cause mutations
What is the genetic basis of these conditions: Tay-Sachs, Cystic Fibrosis, Phenylketonuria, Sickle-cell, Huntingtons, color blindness, Duchenne’s MD?
Tay-Sachs=autosomal ressesive disorder

Cystic Fibrosis=Autosomal recessive Disorder

Phenylketonuria= Autosomal recessive that effects the nervous system

Sickle-Cell=Autosomal recessive disorder in which the blood vessels are not normal shape

Huntingtions= Ahuto somal Dominant, degeneration of brain cells

Color Blindness=X linked

Duchennes MD= X linked recessive
. How can one test for genetic defects?
Testing for a protien

Testing the DNA

Testing the fetus , Embryo or egg
What has the Human Genome Project accomplished?
to construct a base sequence map

to construct a genetic map of each chromosome
. What is Genomics? Proteomics?
Genomics is the study of the human genome to better understand how genes direct growth and development

Proteomics
The study of the structure, function and interaction of cellular proteins the human proteome is the collection of proteins
How does gene therapy work? How could it potentially help, eg., a cystic fibrosis child?
An example would be that a bone marrow stem cell is removed from a person, an RNA retrovirus is used to insert a normal gene into them and the cell is returned to the body

Yes, in cystic fibrosis the gene needed is sprayed up the nose giving them the gene they need