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17 Cards in this Set

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Totipotent
A cell has the complete potential to develop into an organism
Reproductive cloning
When an individual is genetically identical to the original individual
How is cloning accomplished?
Cells that they want to clone are put into the G-0 stage. and have there nucleous removed

This nucleous is put into an egg that has had its own nucleus removed (enucleated)egg

This culture is grown into embryonic stem cells and implanted into a surrogate mother

and a baby clone is born
Therapeutic cloning
The desired end is not an individual rather it is mature cells of various cell type
What is the difference between Therapeutic cloning and Reproductive cloning
Therapeutic cloning is when the embryonic cells are separated and each is subjected to a treatment that causes it to develop into a particular type of cell.

Reproductive cloning is when an individual is genetically identical to the original individual
The lac operon is transcribed in the presence of lactose, but shut off in the absence of lactose. How is this accomplished?
A regulatory gene codes for a repressor

This repressor binds to the operator and prevents RNA polymerase from attaching to the promoter.

When lactose is present it binds to the repressor distorting it so that it can no longer bind to the operator

This lets RNA polymerase bind and the structural gene is expressed.
If every cell in your body has all the genes to become any cell type, how come some cells become bone, some muscle, etc.?
Signaling between cells turns on particular genes
. Describe “X-inactivation” and why it results in effects such as the calico cat? Why are there no male calico cats?
This is due to what is called a bar body or inactive x chromosoime that does not produce a gene product,this would mean that there is one inactive X in each cell... we know this because half the genes are expresses in a heterozygoes female in a trait like absence sweat glans because the bar body adds nothing. Males do not have this bar body and only have one X chromosome the y is a little runt
Describe the levels of gene control in eukaryotes (fig 25.4).
During Transcription the process starts with the interaction of DNA sequences called enhancers and promoters, The protiens is called Transcription factors and activators.

After transcription mRNA is processed before it leaves the nucleus, Removel of introns and splicing of exons vary the type of m RNA. Alos the speed of transport can effect the amount of gene product relized

Translation. The longer this MRNA is in the cytoplasm without being broken down the more product there will be.

Next is protien activity, meaning that some protiens are not active right away and some live a short time before protosomes destroy them.
Why are some of these levels of gene control missing in prokaryotes?
Because they are simpler and do not need to code for so many enzymes
What are transcription factors and activators?
A transcription factor helps RNA Polymersase Bind to a promoter site on a pcs of DNA.

The Transcripton activators are binding to the enhancer part of the DNA, This activator helps speed things along during transcription.
Most cell signals cannot enter the cell, yet they bring about changes in gene activity. How?
Because there is a receptor protien in the plasma membrane of the recieving cell. This molecule causes the recieving cell to start a series of reactions that will cause it to do somthing or make somthing,, This series of reactions is the Signal transduction pathway
What are the characteristics of cancer?
They form tumors
Lack specialization
Have abnormal nuclei
Spread to new locations
What are proto-oncogenes
Encode for protiens that promote the cell cycle and prevent apoptosis they are the gas pedal and the mutations produced are a gain of function. Because the product they produce can be overexpressed
tumor-suppressor genes?
these genes ingibit the cell cycle and and promote apoptosis.. When they mutate this ability goes away.
How is cancer diagnosed?
Routing screening like the Pap test and mammorgrams and colonoscopy.

Tumor marker tests,,blood tests looking for tumer antigens

Genetic tests ,,, testing for genetic mutations in proto oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
? How can it be best avoided?
Get tested for cancer

Avoid radiation

Avoid alcohol

Dont sunbathe

Dont smoke

Avoid obesity

Increasevitamins A and C

cut down on smoked foods

eat more cabbage