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143 Cards in this Set

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What bug causes gastritis?
Helicobacter Pylori
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
What bug protects itself by producing ammonia?
Helicobacter Pylori
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
What bug has urease to produce ammonia?
Helicobacter Pylori
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
What bug induced gastritis in the _____ of the stomach decreases somatostatin from D cells resulting in acid hypersecretion. This results in ____ ulcers.
Helicobacter Pylori, antrum, Duodenal
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
A ___ test is used to detect urease positive bacteria.
14C-labeled test, breath out labeled CO2 if have H. Pylori
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
What is the treatment for H. Pylori
bisthmus therapy + tetracycline/amoxicillin + metronidazole OR metronidazole + imeprazole + clarithromycin
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
metronidazole + imeprazole + clarithromycin combo is used to treat what?
Helicobacter Pylori
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
H pylori causes __% of duodenal ulcers and __% of gastric ulcers?
90%, 70%
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
What bacteria causes 90% of duodenal ulcers and 70% of gastric ulcers?
Helicobacter Pylori
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
A malignant ulcer, commonly associated with ____ bacteria has _____ borders?
H. Pylori, heaped borders
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
Chronic ____ infection is associated with gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma
Helicobacter Pylori
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
Chronic H. pylori infection is associated with what two malignancies?
gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma
p. 142, 170, 172, 275, 276, 282, 429
What gram- bacteria resemble comma shape?
Campylobacter jejuni
p. 141
What gram- rod grows best at 42C
Campylobacter jejuni
p. 141
What gram- rod urease- and oxidase+
Campylobacter jejuni
p. 141
Campylobacter jejuni is ______ for oxidase?
positive
p. 141
Bacteroides fragilis is best treated with _____
clindamycin
p. 161, 170
What is the most common species of colonic flora
Bacteroides fragilis
p. 161, 170
What bug causes GI or peptic abscesses "below the diaphragm" and peritonitis
Bacteroides fragilis
p. 161, 170
Is Bacteroides fragilis aerobic or anaerobic?
anaerobic
p. 161, 170
What does Bacteroides fragilis cause?
GI or peptic abscesses "below the diaphragm" and peritonitis
What bug causes epiglottitis, otitis media, pneumonia and meningitis
Haemophilus influenzae type B
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What is the most common cause of meningitis in children 6mo to 6yrs
Haemophilus influenzae type B
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What bacteria is protected from secretory IgA by IgA protease?
Haemophilus influenzae type B
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What bacteria colonizes the upper respiratory tract and causes epiglottitis and otitis media?
Haemophilus influenzae type B
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
Haemophilus influenzae type B causes what infections? But does not cause what?
epiglottitis, otitis media, pneumonia and meningitis, does not cause flu
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What mechanism allows Haemophilus influenzae type B to invade the submucosa and enter the blood
Haemophilus influenzae type B avoids phagocytosis with a capsule
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What bacteria requires hemin (X factor) and NAD (V factor) on chocolate agar
Haemophilus influenzae type B
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What type of media is used to grow Haemophilus influenzae type B
hemin (X factor) and NAD (V factor) on chocolate agar
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What drug is used to treat meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B
chloramphenicol
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What drug is used for local infections of Haemophilus Influenzae type B?
2nd or 3rd gen cephalosporins like ceftriaxone
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What type of vaccine is given against Haemophilus Influenzae type B?
Hib vaccine: capsular polysaccharide type b strain conjugated to diphteria toxoid
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What is the Hib vaccine used for?
Haemophilus influenzae type B
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
When is the best time to vaccinate against Haemophilus influenzae type B?
between 2 and 18 months
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What drug is given to close contacts for Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis
rifampin
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
What type of Haemophilus influenzae causes pneumonia in adults post recent influenza viral infection
"Non-typeable" H. influenzae
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
"Non-typeable" H. influenzae causes what type of infection?
pneumonia in adults post recent influenza viral infection
p. 133, 135, 137, 140, 161, 164, 166, 168, 170, 173, 429, 432
Legionella pneumophila causes what type of infection?
atypical pneumonia
p. 132, 135
What type of infection is Legionnaire's disease
atypical pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila
p. 132, 135
What gram- rod is best visualized with silver stain?
Legionella pneumophila
p. 132, 135
What gram- rod is cultured on charcoal yeast extract with iron and cystein?
Legionella pneumophila
p. 132, 135
What is the best way to visualize Legionella pneumophila?
silver stain
p. 132, 135
What is the best way to culture Legionella pneumophila?
charcoal yeast extract with iron and cystein
p. 132, 135
What drug is used to treat Legionella pneumophila?
erythromycin
p. 132, 135
What is the mode of transmission of Legionella pneumophila
no person-to person contact, infected water source (air conditioners)
p. 132, 135
What causes wooping cough?
Bordetella pertussis
p. 132, 135
Bordetella pertussis causes what?
wooping cough
p. 132, 135
What type of toxin is in bordetella pertussis and how does it work?
AB toxin that ADP ribosylates and inactivates Gi proteins->uninhibited adylate cyclase ->more cAMP->lymphocytosis, decreased phagocytosis by inhibiting chemokine receptor
p. 132, 135
What bug growes on Bordet-Gengou medium (potato agar)
Bordetella pertussis
p. 132, 135
Bordetella pertussis is grown on what type of medium?
Bordet-Gengou medium (potato agar)
p. 132, 135
What disease is caused by Brucella species?
undulating fever
p. 135, 137, 142
What causes undulating fever
Brucella species
p. 135, 137, 142
How is Brucella species transmitted
animal products (eg. goat cheese) or direct skin contact
p. 135, 137, 142
Describe 3 characteristics of Brucella species
Gram-, coccobacilli, facultative intracellular
p. 135, 137, 142
What disease is caused by Francisella tularensis?
talaremias (site specific infection + lymphadenopathy)
p. 142
What is the reserviour of Francisella tularensis?
Rabbits & deer
p. 142
What is the vector for Francisella tularensis? (4)
ticks, lice, mites, contact with infected animal at skin
p. 142
What disease is caused by Pasteurella multocida?
cellulitis
p. 142, 164, 422
Where is Pasteurella multocida found?
Normally inhabits oral cavity of animals
p. 142, 164, 422
How does infection with Pasteurella multocida
spreads locally to soft tissue (cellulitis) and bone (osteomyelitis)
p. 142, 164, 422
What infection can humans get from a dog or cat bite
Pasteurella multiocida
p. 142, 164, 422
What disease is caused by Mycobacterioum tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What are the 2 types of TB
Primary and secondary
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What is extrapulmonary TB (5)
CNS (parenchymal TB or meningitis), Vertebral body (Pott's disease = osteomyelitis), Lymphadenitis, Renal, GI
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What is a Ghon Complex and where is it found
Hilar nodes + Ghon focus (usually lower lobes); TB granulomas (Ghon focus) with lobar and perihilar lymph node involvement. Reflects primary infection or exposure).
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
Where is Secondary TB found
Fibrocaseous cavity lesion in the upper lobes
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
Who is the most likely Non-immune host for TB
child -> primary infection
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
Who is the most likely partially immune host
Hypersensitized adult -> reinfection (secondary infection) esp in HIV
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What is Miliary TB
sever bacteremia with TB
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What causes secondary TB
weakened T cell response -> reactivation of pulmonary tubercles in apex -> lg caseous granulomas -> cavitations
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
Best way to ID TB infection in vitro
acid fast stain of sputum
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What is the CXR finding in TB
Ghon complex
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
Name the 5 first line TB drugs
INH-SPIRE; Streptomycin, Pyrazinamide, Isoniazid, Rifampin, ethambutol
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What drug is 2nd line for TB
cycloserine
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What drug is used along to TB prophylaxis
Isoniazid
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What is the common side effect of TB therapy
hepatotoxicity
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What is the mechanism of immune system control of TB
T-cell mediated immunity
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What are the symptoms of TB
fever, night sweats, weight loss, and hemoptysis
p. 143, 162, 172, 173, 181
What bacterium grows in low temp areas such as skin and fingers
Mycobacterium Leprae
p. 143
What are the 2 forms of Hansen's disease (Leprosy)
lepromatous and tuberculoid
p. 143
Which type of leprosy is worse lepromatous or tuberculoid
lepromatous is worse (failed cell-mediated immuntiy); tuberculoid is self-limited; LEpromatous=LEthal
p. 143
Where is Mycobacterium Leprae infection often found
skin and superficial nerves
p. 143
How is Mycobacterium Leprae cultured?
it cannot be cultured
p. 143
What is the reserviour of Mycobacterium Leprae in the US
armadillos
p. 143
What drug is used to treat M. leprae?
dapsone
p. 143
What is dapsone used for and what is it's toxicity?
M. leprae (long term treatment); tox = hemolysis and methemoglobinemia
p. 143
What are alternative treatment for M. leprae
rifampin and cobo of clofazimine & dapsone
p. 143
What are the physical findings in lepromatous leprosy
"leonine facies" of lepromatous leprosy = loss of eyebrows, nasal collapse, lumpy earlobe
p. 143
What disease presents with loss of eyebrows, nasal collapse and lumpy earlobes
Lepromatous leprosy
p. 143
What disease is caused by Treponema pallidum?
Syphilis
p. 145, 150
What is the treatment for Syphilis?
penicillin G
p. 145, 150
Describe primary syphilis
Presents with painless chancre (localized disease)
p. 145, 150
What infection presents with painless chancre (localized disease)
Treponema pallidum (syphilis)
p. 145, 150
Describe secondary syphilis
Disseminated disease with constitiutional symptoms, maculopapular rash (palms and soles), condyloma lata
p. 145, 150
What infection presents with condyloma lata)
Treponema pallidum (syphilis)
p. 145, 150
Describe tertiary syphilis
Gummas, aortitis, neurosyphilis (tabes dorasalis), Argyll Robertson pupil
p. 145, 150
What disease presents with an accomodating but non-reactive pupil, what is this called?
tertiary syphilis, Argyll Robertson pupil
p. 145, 150
Describe the Argyll Robertson pupil
Consticts with accomodation but is not reactive to light; "prostitutes pupil" accomodates but does not react
p. 145, 150
What are the 4 clinical signs of tertiary syphilis
broad based ataxia, positive Rohberg, Charcot joints, stroke w/o hypertension
p. 145, 150
Describe Congenital syphilis (3)
Saber shins, saddle nose, deafness
p. 145, 150
What congenital condition presents with saber shins, saddle nose and deafness
Congenital syphilis
p. 145, 150
What is the non-specific test for syphilis
VDRL - non-specific antibody that reacts with beaf cariolipin
p. 145, 150
Under what 6 conditions will a VDRL be false positive
Viral infection (mono, hepatitis), some Drugs, Rheumatic fever, Rheumatoid arthritis, Lupus, Leprosy
p. 145, 150
What is the most specific test for treponemes
FTA-ABS: Find The Antibody - ABSolutely
p. 145, 150
What are the features of FTA-ABS
most specific, earliest positive, remains positive longest
p. 145, 150
If a VDRL is positive and FTA-ABS is negative does the patient have syphilis?
NO, FTA-ABS is more specific than VDRL
p. 145, 150
What is Treponema pertenue?
causes yaws (a tropical infection that is not an STD, although VDRL is positive)
p. 145, 150
What bacterium causes yaws?
Treponema pertenue
p. 145, 150
What shape is Treponema and how to stain for it
Spirochete, dark field microscopy
p. 145, 150
Where can Rickettsia be found?
intracellularly
p. 133
Name 2 obligate intracellular parasites
Rickettsia and Clamydia
p. 133, 137 Stay inside when it's Really Cold
What obligate intracellular parasites use what resouce produced by the host cell?
Rickettsia and Clamydia use intracellular ATP for energy.
p. 137
What drug is used to treat Rickettsia?
Tetracyclines
p. 170
What disease is caused by Rickettsia Rickettsii and what are it's symptoms?
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: rash, fever, headache
p. 133, 137, 170
What causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and what are the symptoms?
Rickettsia Rickettsii: rash, fever, headache
P. 133, 137, 170
What are 3 types of Rickettsia and what do they cause?
Rickettsia Rickettsii causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Rickettsia Porwazekii causes epidemic Typhus, Coxiella Burnetii causes Q fever
p. 133, 137, 170
What are the symptoms of Rickettsia prowazekii infection?
rash, fever, headache, Brill Zinsser disease
p. 133, 137, 170
What type of bug is Coxiella burnetii?
Rickettsia
p. 133, 137, 170
What do Poliovirus, Coxsackieviruses A&B and Hepatitis A virus have in common?
They are all Picornovirdae Enteroviruses
p. 153
What are 4 types of Picornovirdae Enteroviruses
Poliovirus, Coxsackieviruses A &B, and Hep A
p. 153
What is caused by Coxsackivirus
aseptic meningitis, herpangina - febrile pharyngitis hand food, and mouth diease, myocarditis
p. 153
What are the Salk/Sabin vaccines used for?
Poliovirus
p. 153
What is the difference between the Salk and Sabin vaccines
Salk is IPV and Sabin is OPV
p. 153
What is the shape and RNA/DNA of Picornovirdae like?
Isohedra, non-enveloped, SS+linear
p. 153
What does Hep A virus cause?
Acute viral hepatitis
p. 153
Name 5 picornoviruses
Poliovirus, Echovirus, Rhinovirus, Coxsackievirus, HAV
p. 155 PERCH on a "peak" (pico)
Describe the RNA processing of picornoviruses
RNA is translated into 1 large polypeptide that is cleaved by proteases into functional viral proteins.
p. 155
Which 3 picornoviruses can cause aseptic (viral) meningitis?
Poliovirus, Echovirus, Coxsackievirus
p. 155
Describe Rhinovirus (2 features)
Non-enveloped RNA virus
p. 155
What does Rhinovirus cause?
common cold
p. 155 Rhino has a runny nose
How many serotypes of Rhinovirus exist?
over 100
p. 155
What virus causes the common cold?
Rhinovirus
p. 155 Rhino has a runny nose
Which Picornaviridae can cause dilated myocarditis?
Coxsackievirus B
p.233
What is a cardiac complication of Coxsackievirus B?
dilated myocarditis
p. 233
What does Coxsackievirus A cause?
herpalgia (red oropharynx veicles, fever, sore throat), hand foot and mouth disease
p. 155
What is a complication of polio
degeneration of anterior horns, LMN signs
p. 349
What viral infection presents with LMN signs?
polio
p. 349
How long is the incubation period of Hep A
3 weeks
p. 157
Which Hep virus has no carriers
Hep A
p. 157
How is Hep A transmitted
fecal-oral route
p. 157
Describe the production of Hep A virus
naked SS RNA is translated into 1 large polypeptide that is cleaved into functional viral proteins (like all Picornoviruses)
p. 155
How does Hep A infection usually present
Asymptomatic
p. 157
Describe the production of Rhinovirus
naked SS RNA is translated into 1 large polypeptide that is cleaved into functional viral proteins (like all Picornoviruses)
p. 155