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39 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Frequency Distribution

A record of the frequence of scores located in each response category of what's being measured


Interval Scale

Ordered equidistant categories having an infinite # of intermediate values and an arbitrary zero point


Correlation Method

Observing the naturally occuring relationship b/w two or more variables (as one variable changes, how does the other change?) ex: shoe size and height


Construct

Hypothetical concepts (abstract ideas)


Experimental Method

Cause and effect relationship; requires manipulation of at least one variable & measuring another variable


Hypothesis

Specific testable prediction about the relationship b/w 2 or more variables.


Nominal Scale (Categorical)

Category with different names. No quantitative distinctions; numbers may serve as labels


Ordinal Scale (ordered)

Category names (or #'s) are represented in an ordered sequence of magnitude; numbers have very limited quantitative properties
ex: attractiveness, job performance 

Ratio Scale

Interval scale with an absolute zero point (absence of construct) ex: Kelvin, time


Cumulative Frequency

Add the frequency at and below each score.


Scientific Method

1. Describe the question/problem.
2. Design study>collect data. 3. Analyze data, draw conclusions. 4. Revise theories. 

Operational definition

Defining a construct by the manner in which the variable is used and measured.
ex: What does intelligence look like (IQ) 

Key elements in any distribution

1. Set of possible scores
2. The frequency of scores at each category 

Variable

characteristic that changes or is different from one individual to the next (something that is measured)


Grouping Guidelines

1. Have about 10 intervals
2. Interval widths must be equals 3. Use simple numbers for interval widths 4. The lower limit of the interval should be a multiple of the interval widths (ex: 2,4,5,10) 5. Highest &/or lowest interval should not have a zero frequency 

Experimental Group

Receives the treatment level of the Ind. Var.


Apparent Limit

The actual limits of each interval (w/ gaps)
ex: 6.56.9 

Real (Exact) Limit

Limits of the entire interval (closing the gaps)
always represented with one more place past the decimal that the apparent limit 

Confounding Variable

Uncontrolled variable that can systematically vary with the ind. var.


Midpoint

In the exact middle of the interval


QuasiExperiment

Nonmanipulated Ind. Var.


Random Assignment

For each participant, equal chance for assignment to each condition (Holds extraneous variables constant)


Statistics

A set of methods and rules for organizing summarizing and interpreting information.


Control Group

Does not receive the treatment level of the Ind. Var.;gets treatment or gets placebo treatment


Independant Variable

The variable that is manipulated (or controlled)
ex: different groups; positive vs. negative words 

Dependent Variable

The variable that is observed/measured.


Inferential Statistic

Procedures used to generalize the characteristic of a sample of a population (Infer to the population)


Theory

Integrated set of principles that explain all the facts and predicts observed events.


Qualitative Difference

Change in kind/quality ex: eye color, different drugs


Continuous Variable

Variable with an infinite # of possible intermediate values b/w any two values, qualitative differences.
ex: time, distance, weight 

Quantitative Difference

Change of amount
ex: different amounts of drugs 

Discrete Variable

A)Represents seperate categories for each level of the variable with no intermediate values
B) Qualitative differences ex:gender, # of students 

Parameter

Numerical value that describes a characteristic of a population.


Population

Set of individual of interest in a particular study.


Random Sampling

Process of obtaining a sample that requires every individual in the population has equal chance of selection (representatives of whole population)


Statistic

Numerical value that describes a characteristic of a sample


Sample

Set of individuals selected from a population who are intended to represent the population in research study.


Sampling Error

The numeric difference that usually exists b/w the sample statistic & population parameter ex) voting prediction, (aka: margin of error)


Descriptive Statistics

Procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data (describe)
