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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Axis I
Major Psychiatric Disorders that tend to relapse and remit
Axis II
Ongoing, chronic disorders that stay relatively constant and have onset in childhood or early adulthood (mental retardation and personality disorders)
Axis III
Any medical condition.
Axis IV
Stressors in the individual's life (psychosocial and environmental)
Axis V
Global Assessment of Functioning Score (1-100 severity/impairment caused by psychiatric disorder)
Echopraxia
Pathological imitation of mvmts of one person by another
Catalepsy
general term for an immobile position that is constantly maintained
Catatonic stupor
markedly slowed motor activity, often to point of immobility and seeming unawareness of surroundings
Waxy flexibility
condition of a person who can be molded into a position that is then maintained (if move their limb, it feels like wax)
Akinesia
lack of physical movement, as in extreme immobility of catatonic schizophrenia
Cataplexy
temporary loss of muscle tone and weakness precipitated by a variety of emotional states
Stereotypy
repetitive fixed pattern of physical action or speech
Mannerism
ingrained, habitual involuntary movement
Psychomotor agitation
excessive motor and cognitive overactivity, usual nonproductive and in response to internal tension
Tic
involuntary, spasmodic motor movement
Akathisia
subjective feeling of muscular tension secondary to antipsychotic or other meds, can cause restlessness, pacing, repeated sitting/standing, can be mistaken for agitation
Ataxia
failure of muscle coordination, irregularity of muscle action
Psychomotor retardation
decreased motor/cognitive activity, visible slowing of thought, speech and mvmt.
Dyskinesia
difficulty in performing voluntary mvnts, as in extrapyramidal disorders
Bradykinesia
slowness of motor activity with a decrease in normal spontaneous mvmt
Chorea
random and involuntary quick, jerky, purposeless mvmts
Dystonia
slow, sustained contractions of trunk/limbs, seen in med induced dystonia
Mood
pervasive and sustained emotion, subjectively experienced and reported by patient and observed by others
Dysphoric mood
unpleasant, somewhat sad mood
Euthymic mood
ml range of mood, implies absence of depressed or elevated mood
Expansive mood
expression of feelings without restraint, frequently with overestimation of their significance or importance
Irritable mood
state in which person is easily annoyed and provoked to anger
Labile mood
(mood swings) oscillations between eupohria, depression, or anxiety
Elevated mood
air of confidence and enjoyment, a mood more cheerful than usual
Ecstacy
feeling of intense happiness
Depression
pathological feeling of sadness
Anhedonia
loss of interest and withdrawl from all regular and pleasurable activities, often associated with depression
Grief
sadness appropriate to a real loss
Alexithymia
a person's difficulty in describing or being aware of emotions or mood
Elation
feelings of joy, eupohria, triumph, intense self satisfaction, or optimism
Anxiety
feeling of apprehension caused by and in anticipation of danger, which may be internal or external
Affect
observed expression of emotion, possibly inconsistent with patient's description of emotion
Appropriate affect
emotional tone is in harmony with accompanying idea, thought or speech; also broad/full affect in which full range of emotions is appropriately expressed
Inappropriate affect
disharmony between emotional feeling tone and the idea, thought, or speech accompanying it
Blunted affect
disturbance in affect manifsted by a severe reduction in the intensity or externalized feeling tone
Restricted or Constricted affect
reduction in the intensity of externailzed feeling tone

constricted > blunted > flat
Flat affect
absence or near absence of any signs of affective expression; voice monotonous, face immobile
Labile affect
rapid and abrupt changes in emotional feeling tone, unrelated to external stimuli
Speech
ideas, thoughts, feelings as expressed through language; communication through use of words and language
Pressured speech
rapid speech that is increased in amount and difficult to interrupt
Logorrhea
copious, coherent, logical speech
Poverty of speech
restriction in the amount of speech used, replies may be monosyllabic
Nonspontaneous speech
verbal responses given only when asked or spoken to directly, no self initiation of speech
Poverty of content of speech
speech is adequate in amount, but conveys little info because of vagueness, emptiness, or stereotyped phrases
Dysprosody
loss of normal melody of speech (prosody)
Dysarthria
difficulty in articulation, not in word finding or grammar
Perception
process of transferring physical stimulation into psychological info; mental process by which sensory stimuli brought into awareness
Hallucination
false sensory perception not associated with real external stimuli; may or may not have delusional interpretation
Hypnagogic hallucination
false sensory perception occurs while falling asleep; generally considered non pathological
Hypnopompic hallucination
false perception occurring while awakening from sleep (popping out of bed); generally considered non pathological
Auditory hallucinations
false perception of sound, usually voices but also other noises such as music; most common hallucination in psychiatric disorders
Visual hallucination
False perception involving sight: formed images and unformed images; most common in medically related disorders
Olfactory hallucinations
false perception of smell; most commonly related to med disorders such as pre-ictus of seizures
Gustatory hallucination
False perception of taste, usually unpleasant, commonly related to med disorders, such as pre-ictus of seizures
Somatic hallucination
False sense of things occuring in body, most often visceral in origin
Mood congruent hallucination
content is consistent with either a manic or depressed mood
Mood incongruent hallucination
content is not consistent with either a depressed or manic mood
Command hallucinations
false perception of orders that a person may feel obliged to obey or unable to resist (often dangerous)
Illusion
misperception or misinterpretation of real external sensory stimuli
Dissociation
defense mechanism involving segregation of any group of mental or behavioral processes from the rest of the person's psychic activity
Macropsia
state in which objects seem larger than they are
Micropsia
state in which objects seem smaller than the are
can be associated with partial cx sz
Depersonalization
a person's subjective sense of being unreal, strange, or unfamiliar
Derealization
subjective sense that the environment is strange or unreal; feeling of changed reality
Fugue
taking on a new identity with amnesia for the old identity; often involves travel or wandering to new environments
Thoughts
Goal directed flow of ideas, symbols, associations initiated by a problem or task and leading towards a reality oriented conclusion
Thought process
flow of one idea to another in a logical process
Neologism
new word created by a patient, often combining syllables of other words; idiosyncratic and pathological
Word salad
Incoherent mixture of words and phrases
Circumstantiality
Indirect speech that is delayed inreaching point, but eventually gets from original pt to desired goal; char by overinclusion of details and parenthetical remarks
Tangentiality
Inability to have goal directed associationso fo thought; never gets from desired point to goal
Verbigeration
meaningless repetition of specific words or phrases (man at train stop)
Perseveration
Persisting response to a previous stimulus after new stim has been presented; often associated with cog disorders
Echolalia
pathological repeating of words/phrases of one person and another
Loosening of associations
flow of thought in which ideas shift from one to another in a completely unrelated way; when severe, speech may be incoherent
Derailment
gradual or sudden deviation in train of thought with blocking
Blocking
abrupt interruption in train of thinking before thought/idea is finished; after brief pause no recall of what was being said
Flight of ideas
rapid continuous verbilazations or plays on words produce constant shifting; ideas tend to be connected but too fast for listener to comprehend
Clang association
association of words similar in sound but not in meaning; no logical connection; may involve rhyming and punning
Thought content
realtiy drawn conclusions arising in thoughts
Overvalued idea
unreasonable, sustained false belief maintained less firmly than a delusion
Delusion
fixed false belief, based on incorrect inference about external reality, not consistent with intelligence/cultural background, can't be corrected by reasoning
Bizarre delusion
absurd, totally implausible, strange belief (aliens in brain)
Mood congruent delusions
delusion with mood appropriate content
Mood incongruent delusion
delusions with content that has no association to mood
Nihilistic delusion
false feeling that self, others, or world is coming to an end
Delusion of poverty
false belief that he/she is destitute or will be deprived of all material posessions
Somatic delusion
false belief involving functioning of body (inside is rotting/melting)
Paranoid delusion
includes persecutory delusions and delusions of reference, control and grandeur
Delusions of persecution
false belief that he/she is being harassed, cheated, or persecuted
Delusion of grandeur
exaggerated conception of his/her own importance/power
Delusion of reference
false belief that behavior of others refer to him/herself; that events, objects or other people have a particular and unusual significance
Thought withdrawl
delusion that thoughts are being removed from a person's mind by other people or forces
Thought insertion
delusions that thoughts are being implanted in a person's mind by other people or forces
Thought broadcasting
Delusions that a person's thougths can be heard by others
Thought control
delusions that a person's thoughts are being controlled by other people or forces
Delusions of jealousy
false belief derived from pathological jealousy about a person's lover being unfaithful
Erotomanic delusions
delusional belief, women > men, someone is deeply in love with them from afar
Suicidal and homicial ideation
preoccupation with thoughts of harming self or others
Obsession
pathological persistence of an irresistible thought/feeling that cannot be eliminated from consciousness by logical effort, associated with anxiety
Compulsion
pathological need to act on an impulse that, if resisted, produces anxiety; repetitive behavior in response to obsession or according to rules
Phobia
persistent, irrational, exaggerated, and pathological dread of a specific stimulus/situation; desire to avoid
Disorientation
disturbance of orientation in time, place, or person
Clouding of consciousness
incomplete clearmindedness iwth disturbances in perception and attitude
Stupor
lack of reaction to and unawareness of surroundings
Delirium
bewildered, resteless, confused, disoriented reaction associated with fear and hallucinations
Coma
profound degree of unconsciousness
Somnolence
abnormal drowsiness
Drowsiness
state of impaired awareness associated with a desire/inclination to sleep
sundowning
syndrome in older people that usually occurs at night; char by drowsiness, confusion, ataxia, and falling
Amnesia
partial or total inability to recall past experiences; may be medical or emotional in origin
Anterograde
amnesia for events occurring after a point in time
Retrograde
amnesia for events occurring before a point in time
Confabulation
unconscious filling of gaps in memory by imagined or untrue experiences that a person believes but have no basis in fact
Deja vu
illusion of visual recognition in which a new situation is incorrectly regarded as a repetition of a previous memory
Levels of Memory
Immediate - recall seconds to minutes
Recent - last few days
Recent past - past few months
Remote - distant past
Distractability
inability to concentrate attention; attention is drawn to unimportant or irrelevant stimuli
Selective inattention
blocking out only those things that generate anxiety
Hypervigilance
excessive attention and focus on all internal and external stimuli, usually secondary to delusional or paranoid states
Trance
focused attention and altered consciousness, usually seen in hypnosis and dissociative disorders
Abstract thinking
ability to appreciate nuances of meaning; multidimensional thinking, ability to use metaphors and hypotheses appropriately
Concrete thinking
literal thinking; literal use of metaphor without understanding of nuances of meaning, one dimensional thought
Intelligence
ability to recall, understand, mobilize, and constructively integrate previous learning into new situations
Mental retardation
lower intelligence that interferes with social/vocational performance
Mild IQ 50-70
Moderate 35-50
Severe 20-40
Profound below 25
Dementia
pathological and global deterioration of intellectual functioning with clouding of consciousness
Pseudodementia
clinical features resembling dementia but not caused by pathological deterioration of brain; often cause by depression
Insight
person's ability to understand true cause and meaning of a situation
Impaired insight
diminished ability to understand the objective reality of a situation
Judgement
ability to assess a situation correctly and act appropriately in the situation
Impaired judgement
diminished ability to understand a situation appropriately and correctly, cannot analyze risk/benefits of decisions