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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three types of disease prevention?

(prevent occurrence, i.e. through vaccination)

(early detection - PAP smear)

(insulin for diabetes)
What are actions of the Reticular Activating System?
Activation and Inhibition/Filtration

Arousal (disorder-stupor)

Orienting Response to Novel Stimuli (Disorder-Attn Deficit)
What are the components of the limbic system?
Cingulate & Parahippocampal gyri of limbic cortex

Hippocampus, dentate gyri, subicular complex

Amygdala (basolat, centromed complexes)

Hypothalamus (Nucl. Accumbens, mamillary bodies)

Thalamus (ant. nuc, DM nucl)

Cortical regions (OF,Temp,Insula)
What types of behaviors arise from the limbic system?

amnesia, Korsakoff's
What are the five zones of the cortex?
Limbic, Paralimbic, Primary Sensory, Primary Motor, Unimodal association, heteromodal association
Functions of five?
Limbic: homeostasis, emotionality, drives/instinct, memory/learning

Paralimbic: assoc limbic&heteromodal - OF,insula,temporal,parahipp, cingulate gyri

Primary sensory, Primary motor(duh)

Unimodal Assoc: Organizes sensory info into recognizable patterns
Motor programs for complex mvmnts
Sensory info about space used to guide above

Heteromodal: Inf Parietal, Prefrontal cortex
Synthesize unimodal sensory, integrated language-relevant perception (ID names attached to objects)
What are the dominant and non-dominant hemisphere responsible for?
Dominant: (maj pop=Left)
Process info sequentially
in detail
Process language input&output

Nondominant (maj=right)
process info for general patterns
parallel fashion
Multiple inputs simultan.
Visual-Spatial input/output
What would right hemisphere dysfunction in a right handed individual cause?
Dysregulated mood (explosiveness, shifting overly intense moods)

Problems with recognition (faces, places)

Poor visual-spatial function
What are some of the functions of the frontal lobe?
Executive Functions:

Initiating planned action

Monitoring/self corr. action

Terminating completed action
How would someone with a frontal lobe lesion present?
make mistakes

less efficient (poor plan)

Become inactive (no plans for ADL's come to mind)

Perseverate (repeat same actions) b/c can't terminate.

Judgment, problem solving disrupted

FIRST AID: Personality Changes, Deficits in Concentration/Orientation/Judgment
What are some other frontal lobe functions?
Abstract Thinking
Short Term Memory
Expressive Lang/Speech
Voluntary mvmnt
What would lesion of the non-dominant frontal lobe produce?
Motor Aprosidia = monotonous speech, expressionless face

Nondom. fr. lobe involved in expression of emotion/musicality/intonationin speech
What are some functions of the temporal lobe?
New Learning
Emotional tone to perceptions
Facial Recognition

Receptive Aprosodia
Prosopagnosia = inability to recognize faces, despite adeq. vision

Receptive Aprosidia: inabiliity to respond/recognize emotions of others

Both due to temporal lobe lesions
Parietal Lobe Functions?
Recognizing concurrent sensory signals as single perception

3-D space & self relation to space

Integration Visual/tactile with language

Linking perception to motor performance/mvmnt guidance
What do lesions in the parietal lobe cause?
Huge effect on IQ scores
intellectual life
understanding abstract concepts

Astereognosis: cannot ID objects by touch in extremity contralat to lesion

Agraphesthesia= can't ID #s/letters traced on contralat palm to lesion

both are parietal lobe lesions dependent
Dyspraxia or Apraxia
inability to perform simple motor tasks (using scissor/hammers)

w/ intact primary motor skills

parietal lobe lesion
What two behavioral states correlate with Dopamine?
1) Substance Abuse - reward pathway for some drugs utilizes dopa release

Repeated use=dopa stores depleted=no pleasure

2) Schizophrenia (too much Dopa, meds block Dreceptors)
What effects does NE have?
What is it synthesized by?
1) stimulants - energizing effect can produce aggression/violence

2) Reduces pain perception

3) Increased amnts in cleft tx depression

Made from Dopamine by B-Hydroxylase Enzyme
Found in Locus Coeruleus
Behavioral effects of Serotonin?
Low levels= depression, other NT's become pathogenic

high levels= incr sleep, decr sexual activity
Hallucinogens impact 5HT rec.

Found Dorsal Raphe Nuclei
Vegetative functions:
sedation, wt control, CV effects

H2 blockade (antipsychotics, tricyclics) may -> wt gain, incr appetite
MEMORY (dementia-Alzheimers)

Degenerate also in Downs, mvmnt disorders
Decreases anxiety (Benzodiazepines are anti-anxiety and potent. GABA)
Anticonvulsant properties

Losso of GABA neurons seen in Parkinsons, Huntingtons
PCP acts on a glutamate receptor to produce schiz-like psychosis
How is obesity defined?
Body weight 20% or grtr over idea body wt for persons gender, age, build.
What does excessive abdominal weight correlate with, and in whom is it more prevalent?
Correlates with:
High blood pressure
early Heart disease
Some cancers

More common in Men
What is the difference btwn childhood onset obesity and adult onset?
Childhood onset: fat cell hyperplasia

Adult: fat cell hypertrophy
What is the BMI a measure of?

How is it calculated?
Measure of weight adj for height.

BMI=wt in KG/(ht in m)squared
What are important BMI numbers to know?
less than 18.5=underweight
18.5-24.9 Normal
25-29.9 Overweight
greater than 30 Obese
Four Correlates of Chronic Pain
1. True physiological substrate
2. Psychological (I'm weak)
3. Social control (self/others)
4. Holding onto loved one by developing similar symptoms
What happens with sensory deprivation?
1. Hypnotic condition
2. Profound anxiety, depression, hostility
3. Auditory/visual hallucinations
Depressed level consciousness
4. Extreme stimulus hunger& suggestibility
What are the wave forms noted in awake periods?
Awake, alert, mental conc:
High Frequency BETA waves (15-18 Hz)

Awake, eyes closed, relaxed:
ALPHA Waves (8-12 Hz)
Describe the first stage of sleep.

What percent of YOUNG ADULT'S sleep cycle spent here?
Stage 1:
Theta Waves (4-7 Hz)
Ligh sleep, slow rolling eyes

Second Stage of Sleep

Percent of sleep cycle?
Stage 2
Deeper Sleep
Sleep Spindles (12-14 Hz increasing and decr. waves)
K complexes

Third Stage of Sleep-Fourth Stage

What actions occur?

Percent of Sleep Cycle?
Slow Wave/Delta Sleep
Delta Waves (lowest freq, highest amplidtude freq 4Hz)

Occur only first two cycles of night.
Breathing/HR slow, muscle tone normal.

Sleepwalking, night terrors, bed-wetting

25% (does not develop fully til mos after birth, dim. with age)
REM sleep?

What causes rapid eye movements?
Rapid-eye-Mvmnt - PPRF (paramedian pontine reticular formation/conjugate gaze center)

Beta Waves, bursts saw tooth waves and alpha occiptal waves (8-12 hz)

Loss Motor Tone
Erections/ clitoral tumes.
Increased 02 use by brain
least responsive to external stimuli
increased/variable BP,Pulse
Loss of DTR's

25% (decreases with age)
Structure of Typical Sleep cycle?
all four stages NREM sleep
REM sleep every 90 minutes, lasts about 20 min, progr longer thru night
What is the role of NT's in REM sleep?
NE induces it but decreases total sleep time and total REM time

Ach is principal transmitter that mediates REM sleep (increases sleep time)

Serotonin increases sleep time

Dopamine increase --> decreases sleep
What can be used to treat night terrors and sleepwalking?

Benzodiazepines, which shorten Stage 4 Sleep

Imipramine for enuresis - also shortens Stage 4 Sleep
What is the definition of Sleep Apnea?
Person stops breathing for at least 10 seconds.
What are the two types of sleep apnea?
Obstructive: muscle atonia/tongue/tonsillar obstruction/nasalobstruction
CONTRIBUTING FACTORS: Obesity, Hypothyroid, alcohol/sedative use

Central: failure of MEDULLA to respond to CO2 (occurs esp in kids, cause ofSIDS) - morning cyanosis
What are symptoms/effects of sleep apnea (esp obstructive)?
Loud snoring
Daytime Sleepiness, Aystole/heart failure Arhythmias
Icreased risk for ischemia/stroke/HTN
Reduced libido (adults)
How to treat sleep apnea?
Weight Loss, CPAP (positive pressure mask), surgery, avoid alcohol/sedatives

Kids with central: sleep posture, buzzer warning system, theophylline to keep sleep light, usually grow out of by age 2-3
How to treat insomnia?

Relaxation techniques/systematic desensitization
no daytime naps,light snack bedtime, bedfor sleep only, exercise, routine

Barbiturates/non-benzos: ADDICTIVE, suppress REM sleep

Benzos: reduce slow-wave sleep, higher doses red REM
Last resort: short acting benzos LESS THAN 1-2 MOS (otherwise addiction)

Problem falling asleep 3x/wk for min 1 mo
Define Narcolepsy.
Sudden onset REM sleep during day.
Strong Genetic Component.

Stimulant drugs
What are the two types of hallucinations that can occur (w or w/o n)?
Hpnagogic hallucinations: just BEFORE falling asleep

Hypnopompic: just before awakening

may occur w/ or w/o sleep paralysis (similar to cataplexy)
Define cataplexy
Sudden loss of voluntary muscle tone (usually follows strong emotions or abrupt mvnmnts).
Attacks last less than 2 min, recover, often accompanies narcolepsy.
Disorders of sleep-wake :
Delayed Sleep phase
Advanced Sleep phase
delayed sleep phase: difficulty arising in morning (jet lag, obscure work shifts)

advanced: can't stay awake in evening, early morning awakenings (mor common in elderly)
Pavor Nocturnus
Somnambulism: Sleepwalking kids: deep sleep, adults; NREM sleep. FAMILIAL. clumsy.
abates by puberty.

Pavor Nocturnus: night terrors. NREM sleep. familial, episodes minutes, amnesia of event on waking.

Tx of both:
Protect from falls
alert family, ID anxieties, long acting benzos to suppress stage 4
Sleep-Related Enuresis
Head Banging
Enuresis: slow wave in kids, first third of night

Bruxism: jaw grinding NREM stage 2

Head banging: early childhood, during sleep onset
Sub-cortical aphasia
lesion in left thalamus or caudate

Initial loss fluency/spont
speech regains fluency

paraphrasic errors, ok repet.

resembles schizophrenic speech.
Difference between global and conduction aphasia?
Global = lesion to both Broca's and Wernickes (slow, labored, dysarthric, telegraphic speech)

Conduction: arcuate fasciculus lesion, repitition impaired but output/comprehension of language mildly affected only
What are key changes in the sleep patterns of depressed individuals?
Decreased slow wave sleep
Decreased REM latency
Early morning awakenings
Name some genetic study techniques to assess environment vs. genetic contributions.
FAMILY studies - prevalence compared to control

Twin- coincidence rates & environment/vs genetics in twins reared apart

Adoption studies: environment

cross-fostering: study adopted kids and biological kids in a family (env. vs genes)

Linkage: find markers linked to characteristic
Orientation - x3 and x4
Patient oriented to person, place, time.

x4 includes to present situation (what are we doing)
What is lost first in orientation?
lost first: time
second: place
last: person
anosognosia: unaware that one is ill

autotopagnosia: unable to locate own body parts

depersonalization: body seems unreal/dissociated
Define the following:

immediate memory

recent memory
immediate memory: within last 10-15 minutes (repetition of 3 things)

recent memory: last two weeks (news events)
Remote Memory
More than two years old
What type of memory is lost first with aging?
immediate memory first, remote memories last
Differentiate between the following:

Hallucinations: Perceptions in absence of stimuli

Illusions: misinterpretations of real stimuli

Delusion: false beliefs maintained in spite of obvious proof to contrary

Thought defect: give excessive detail about situation

off target/ straying to related issues
Diff. btwn:

loose association
Delusion: disorder in the content of the thought, the actual idea.

Loose association: problem in stringing together/ form of thoughts (when only strung together based on word sounds=clang associations)
What is another aspect of thought (other than delusions, tangentiality, circumstantiality, loose assocations)
RATE of thought:

totally blocked out (can't recall thoughts)
What are intelligence tests good at predicting?
Academic achievement, NOT occupational success
What are the different test results and how can they be used?
Full Scale IQ (FSIQ)
Verbal IQ
Performance IQ
If verbal IQ sig. less than performance, could guess dom. hemisphere defect.
What is the mean on IQ tests?
Mean: 100, SD of 15 (85-115)
What IQ scores define levels of mental retardation?
IQ<70 = MR (or 2 SD below mean)

IQ<40 = Severe MR

IQ<20 = Profound MR
What are some issues in using these tests cross-culturally?
Language: require English, oral lang skills

Time: cultures vary in prep for rapidity

Item content: req. ID of items some may not be exposed to
What are the two most famous tests and how do the calculate IQ?
Stanford Binet (good for young kids since less lang)
IQ as

Wechsler: 11 subtests (6 verbal, 5 performance)
What is the difference between and objective and a projective test?

What are intelligence tests?
Objective: questions that are scored and easily analyzed.

Projective: subject interprets questions, response based on subject motivational/defense system

Intelligence test=objective