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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Types of Groups
1. Formal Groups
2. Informal Groups
3. Command Groups
4. Task Group
5. Internet Group
6. Friendship Group
Stages of Development
1. Forming
2. Storming
3. Norming
4. Performing
5. Adjouring
Group Properties
1. Roles
2. Norms
3. Status
4. Size
5. Cohesiveness
Punctuated Equilibrium Model
1. Setting group direction
2. First phase of inertia
3. Half-way point transition
4. Major changes
5. Second phase of inertia
6. Accelerated Activity
Group Property: Role
A set of expected behavioral patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit
List the behavioral patterns of Roles
1. Role Identity
2. Role Perception
3. Role Expectations
4. Role Conflict
Group Property: Norms
Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group's members
List the classes of Norms
1. Performance Norms
2. Appearance Norms
3. Social Arrangement Norms
4. Allocation of Resources Norms
Describe the Hawthorne Experiment
Illumination Experiment

Adjusted illumination for random groups of workers and a special control group

As light level increased, productivity increased in both groups

As light level decreased, productivity decreased for the random group but continued to steadily increase for control group

Experiment showed that because group considered themselves elite, workers responded

Different experiment showed that norms in a group meant more than pay
Describe Zimbardo's Prison Experiment
Stanford

Hired 24 students and randomly assigned guard and prisoner roles

prisoner roles became passive

guard roles became aggressive

why? Social Identity, Stereotypes and student's own experiences with power/powerless relationship.
Deviant Workplace Behavior
AKA antisocial behavior or workplace incivility

depends on the accepted norm of the group

voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization
List the types of deviant behavior
1. Production: Work speed
2. Property: damage and stealing
3. Political: favoritism and gossip
4. Personal Aggression: sexual harassment
Group Property: Status
A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others - it differentiates group members
Status Characteristics Theory
Status is derived from one of three sources:
1. Power a person has over others
2. Ability to contribute to group goals
3. Personal characteristics
Social Loafing
Tendency for individuals to exert less effort when working collectively than when working alone
Group Property: Size
Size affects behavior

>12 means large
< 7 means small

Small => speed, Individual Performance, Overall Performance

Large => Problem Solving, Diverse Input, Fact-finding goals
Group Property: Cohesiveness
Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group
Managerial Implications to increase Cohesiveness
1. Make group smaller
2. Encourage agreement with group goals
3. increase time members spend together
4. increase group status and admission difficulty
5. stimulate competition with other group members
6. give rewards to the group, not individuals
7. physically isolate the group
Group Decision Making Strengths
1. Generate more complete information and knowledge
2. Offer increased diversity of views and greater creativity
3. Increased acceptance of decisions
4. Generally more accurate (but not as accurate as the most accurate group member)
Group Decision Making Weaknesses
1. Time-consuming activity
2. Conformity pressures in groups
3. Discussions can be dominated by a few members
4. A situation of ambiguous responsibility
Group Decision Making Phenomena
1. Group Think
2. Group Shift
Group Shift
A change in decision risk between a group's decision and an individual's decision that a member w/in the group would make; shift can either be more conservative or more risky
Group Decision Making Techniques
1. Brainstorming
2. Nominal Group Techniques
3. Electronic Method
Nominal Group Techniques
Members meet face-to-face to pool ideas in a systematic, but independent approach
Social Identity Theory
individuals take personal pride or offense for the accomplishments of a group
What is Social Identity Important
1. Similarity
2. Distinctions
3. Status
4. Uncertainty Reduction